Showing posts with label GENERAL STUDIES. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GENERAL STUDIES. Show all posts

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Uttar Pradesh Subordinate Service Selection Commission (UPSSSC) Amin and Ahlmad Recruitment Exam 2016 Solved Paper

1. In Uttar Pradesh, lemon is largely grown in–
(a) Saharanpur and Meerut (b) Fatehpur and Pratapgarh (c) Lucknow and Hardoi (d) Allahabad and Varanasi (Ans : b)

2. Which of the following pulses is not covered under Minimum Support Price (MSP)? 
(a) Arhar (b) Masoor (c) Urad (d) Moong (Ans : b)

3. 'Gross Domestic Happiness' concept has been developed by– 
(a) Sweden (b) Bhutan (c) Austria (d) India (Ans : b)

4. Which village ,in Punjab has given the highest number Hockey Olympians? 
(a) Phagwara (b) Batala (c) Mukerian (d) Sansarpur (Ans : d)

5. The fastest train in the world is– 
(a) Shinkansen (Japan) (b) German ICE-3 (c) French TGV (d) Shanghai Maglev (Ans : d)

6. Bastar is a tribal district in the State of– 
(a) Madhya Pradesh (b) Chhattisgarh (c) Jharkhand (d) Odisha (Ans : b)

7. 'Yaari Hai Iman Mera, Yaar Meri Zindagi' is a famous Indo-Afghan friendship song picturised in the film 
(a) Dosti (b) Border (c) Zanjeer (d) Upkar (Ans : c)

8. Who said, "You should go to college and fill your head with knowledge"? 
(a) Angela Merkel (b) Michelle Obama (c) Mahasweta Devi (d) Nita Ambani (Ans : b)

9. Beton Wali Vidhwa is a short story written by– 
(a) Kamleshwar (b) Premchand (c) Ismat Chughtai (d) Khalil Gibran (Ans : b)

10. Which of the following is not included in 'Panchagavya'? 
(a) Cow milk (b) Cow dung (c) Cow ghee (d) Tulsi (Ans : d)

11. In recent visit to African countries, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi played drums with the President of which country? 
(a) Kenya (b) South Africa (c) Mozambique (d) Tanzania (Ans : d)

12. Which of the following countries has the highest fertility rate in the world? 
(a) Angola (b) Mali (c) Somalia (d) Nigeria (Ans : c)

13. Who among the following is the first woman President or Nepal? 
(a) Sushila Karki (b) Bidhya Devi Bhandari (c) On sari Gharti Magar (d) None of the above (Ans : b)

14. The present Prime Minister of United Kingdom is– 
(a) David Cameron (b) Andrea Leadsom (c) Angela Eagle (d) Theresa May (Ans : d)

15. The largest judicial body in the world is– 
(a) International-Court of Justice (b) Allahabad High Court (c) Supreme Court of India (d) UNCLOS on Sea (Ans : a)

16. Which of the following is not covered under Minimum Support Price (MSP)? 
(a) Tobacco (b) Copra (c) Vegetable/Fruit (d) Jute (Ans : c)

17. Who among the following is the present emperor of Japan who has desired to step down on health grounds? 
(a) Hirohito (b) Akihito (c) Naruhito (d) None of these (Ans : b)

18. Manual scavenging is banned in India since–
(a) 1947 (b) 1952 (c) 1990 (d) 1993 (Ans : d)

19. The World Population Day is observed on– 
(a) July 1 (b) July 8 (c) July 11 (d) July 25 (Ans : c)

20. What is true about 'Soil Health Card'? 
(a) It comes free of cost. (b) It gives information to improve the soil for high yields. 
(c) It helps in applying right quantum of fertilizer as per requirement of crops. (d) All of the above (Ans : d)

21. According to Census 2011, the number of women senior citizens in India is– 
(a) 103 million (b) 93 million (c) 53 million (d) 51 million (Ans : c)

22. India is world's biggest parliamentary democracy. When was its first Lok Sabha held? 
(a) August 16, 1947 (b) January 27, 1950 (c) May 13, 1952 (d) June 15, 1952 (Ans : c)

23. 'Potala Palace', a seven-storeyed structure, is associated with– 
(a) Maharana of Jodhpur (b) Dalai Lama (c) Raja Virbhadra of Himachal Pradesh (d) Bajirao Mastani (Ans : b)

24. Due to racial discrimination, Mahatma Gandhi was thrown out of the first class compartment at Pietermaritzburg Railway Station in South Africa in the year– 
(a) 1890 (b) 1891 (c) 1892 (d) 1893 (Ans : d)

25. In Euro Football Championship, 2016, Portugal won the championship defeating– 
(a) Germany (b) Spain (c) France (d) Poland (Ans : c)

26. Which among the following is part of 'Jarib'? 
(a) Feeta (b) Challa (c) Gattha (d) All of these (Ans : d)

27. One acre of land is equal to 
(a) 4840 sq yards (b) 10 sq jarib (c) 0.40467 hectare (d) All of these (Ans : a)

28. In which ancient kingdom, women used to participate in wrestling? 
(a) Bahmani kingdom (b) Vijayanagar kingdom (c) Chola kingdom (d) None of the above (Ans : b)

29. Who among the following Mughal emperors was totally non-alcoholic? 
(a) Akbar (b) Shah Jahan (c) Jahangir (d) Aurangzeb (Ans : d)

30. Who among the following brought Bhakti Movement to Northern India? 
(a) Ramanuja (b) Madhvacharya (c) Ramananda (d) Ramdas (Ans : a)

31. who among the following is the present captain of Indian hockey team participating in Rio Olympics? 
(a) Sardar Singh (b) Akashdeep Singh (c) Harmanpreet Singh(d) Sreejesh (Ans : d)

32. How many sessions of Indian National Congress were presided over by Mahatma Gandhi? 
(a) Three (b) Two (c) One (d) None (Ans : c)

33. Which of the following countries has. not adopted 'April 1 to March 31' as its Financial Year? 
(a) Japan (b) New Zealand (c) America (d) Canada (Ans : c)

34. Terminal Doppler Radar (TDR) is used for– 
(a) weather forecasting (b) landing of planes in inclement weather 
(c) recording of earthquakes (d) deep-sea navigation (Ans : a)

35. Which of the following countries has the lowest fertility rate in the world? 
(a) Singapore (b) South Korea (c) Taiwan (d) Latvia (Ans : a)

36. The first flower grown in space is– 
(a) Zinnia (b) Arnoldii (c) Rafflesia (d) None of these (Ans : a)

37. Who among the following has been conferred with the 51st Jnanpith Award by the President of India? 
(a) Ashok Vajpayee (b) Pushpesh Pant (c) Mrinal Pande (d) Raghuveer Chaudhari (Ans : d)

38. Which State government in India has started the process of banning dog-meat? 
(a) Nagaland (b) Odisha (c) Manipur (d) Arunachal Pradesh (Ans : a)

39. Which of the following cities in India is most densely populated? 
(a) Kalyan (b) Hyderabad (c) Kanpur ((d) Vijayawada (Ans : b)

40. What is the literacy rate of Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh? 
(a) 56% (b) 71% (c) 84% (d) 89% (Ans : c)

41. Who among the following was the first Governor of Uttar Pradesh? 
(a) KM Munshi (b) Sarojini Naidu (c) Sucheta Kriplani (d) VV Giri (Ans : b)

42. Which of the following agricultural crops was covered under Minimum Support Price (MSP) for the first time in 1965? 
(a) Cotton (b) Tobacco (c) Paddy (d) Wheat (Ans : c)

43. 'Operation Sankat Mochan' is associated with– 
(a) flood relief work (b) evacuation of Indians from South Sudan 
(c) National Disaster Management (d) None of the above (Ans : b)

44. Who among the following has become the new Chairman of Competition Commission of India (CCI)? 
(a) DK Sikri (b) Amitabh Kant (c) Ashok Chawla (d) Dhanendra Kumar (Ans : a)

45. 'Pokemon GO', which is recently in headlines, is associated with– 
(a) football league (b) mobile game (c) electric car (d) space mission (Ans : b)

46. When did United Provinces become Uttar Pradesh? 
(a) 1937 (b) 1947 (c) 1950 (d) 1952 (Ans : c)

47. Which Mughal emperor made Allahabad his capital? 
(a) Akbar (b) Shah Alam (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (Ans : b)

48. Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated due to treachery of Jaichand. Subsequently where and when jaichand was killed? 
(a) Tarai, 1192 (b) Chandavar, 1193 (c) Kannauj, 1194 (d) None of these (Ans : c)

49. Prior to Kannauj, Harshavardhana was the emperor of– 
(a) Kaushambi (b) Kushinagar (c) Shravasti (d) Thaneshwar (Ans : d)

50. The only area in Uttar Pradesh, where copper is found, is– 
(a) Banda (b) Mirzapur (c) Lalitpur (d) Bulandshahar (Ans : c)

Madhya Pradesh Police Constable Exam Solved Paper (Exam Held on 09-08-2016)

1. Who was elected to the office of President as an independent candidate? 
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (b) V V Giri (c) Sanjeeva Reddy (d) Dr. Zakir Hussain (Ans : b)

2. The voting age in general elections was reduced from 21 years to 18 by the– 
(a) 72nd Amendment (b) 62nd Amendment (c) 61st Amendment (d) 71st Amendment (Ans : c)

3. A, B, C, D, E and F are members of a club. There are two married couples in the group. A is the brother of D's husband. C is the President of All India Working Women's Association. F, a sitarist, is a bachelor. B's wife is not a member of the club. Four of them belong to the same family. B and F are colleagues in the same organisation. 
Which of the following groups consist of the members of the same family? 
(a) ABED (b) BCDE (c) ADEF (d) ACDE (Ans : d)

4. Which one of these is a famous port on the western coast of India? 
(a) Nhavasheva (b) Paradeep (c) Tuticorin (d) Port Blair (Ans : a)

5. Which of the following cities do not have a functional metro rail system in India? 
(a) New Delhi (b) Kolkata (c) Hyderabad (d) Bangaluru (Ans : a)

6. Who wrote the book 'The Argumentative Indian'? 
(a) PN Bhagwati (b) Amartya Sen (c) Arvind Panagariya (d) Raghuram Rajan (Ans : b)

7. In the following question, there is certain relationship between the first two terms. Choose the fourth term from the following options, which has a similar kind of relation with the third term. 
UTS : EDC : WVU : ? 
(a) XWV (b) WXY (c) SJM (d) RPO (Ans : a)

8. Which is India's first city to have its own City Animal? 
(a) Gaya (b) Ranchi (c) Patna (d) Guwahati (Ans : d)

9. How many times 'E' precedes the consonants in the word 'UNPRECEDENTED'? 
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (Ans : d)

10. Who holds the power of judicial Review in India? 
(a) The Parliament (b) The Supreme Court (c) The Prime Minister (d) The President (Ans : b)

11. Select the option: which is the logical equivalent of the statement given below– 
If I like candies, then I don't like ice creams. I like ice creams. 
(a) I like candies. (b) I don't like chocolates. (c) I don't like candies. (d) None of the above (Ans : c)

12. Which of the following districts of Madhya Pradesh shares it borders with Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh? 
(a) Rewa (b) Anuppur (c) Singrauli (d) Shahdol (Ans : c)

13. Which of the following belongs to the same family as Mumbai, Kolkata and Cochin? 
(a) Delhi (b) Kanpur (c) Chennai (d) Sholapur (Ans : c)

14. 5 persons are sitting in row. One of the two persons at the extreme ends is intelligent and other one is fair. A fat person is sitting to the right of a weak person. A tall person is to the left of the fat person. And the weak person is sitting between the intelligent and fat person Fat person is sitting on whose left hand side? 
(a) Intelligent (b) Fair (c) Weak (d) Tall (Ans : d)

15. Panini wrote a book on grammar. Which book was it? 
(a) Ashtadhyayi (b) Meghadhootha (c) Satapatha (d) Dhanurveda (Ans : a)

16. Chandigarh is the capital of ………. and ………. 
(a) Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir (b) Punjab and Uttarakhand 
(c) Punjab and Himachal Pradesh (d) Punjab and Haryana (Ans : d)

17. The nodal agency of the government of India to disseminate information to the print and electronic media on government policies is– 
(a) Press Information Bureau (b) Press Trust of India (c) United News of India (d) Press Council of India (Ans : a)

18. Which among the following districts does not belong to the Bhopal police range? 
(a) Sehore (b) Rajgarh (c) Vidisha (d) Chhindwara (Ans : d)

19. Which was the oldest university of the Indian subcontinent? 
(a) Nalanda University (b) Taxila University (c) Benaras Hindu University (d) Magadh University (Ans : b)

20. Find out the pair, which is different from the other in the following question. 
(a) Oil and lamp (b) Water and ice (c) Grandfather and grandson (d) Father in law and son in law (Ans : a)

21. Which dam is being built on the Narmada river approx. 10 km from Punasa village in Khandwa district in Western Madhya Pradesh? 
(a) Halali dam (b) Jobat dam (c) Indira Sagar dam (d) Tawa dam (Ans : c)

22. What is the minimum age for a person to become the Prime Minister of India? 
(a) 21 yr (b) 25 yr (c) 35 yr (d) 30 yr (Ans : b)

23. Select the option, which is the logical equivalent of the statement given below– 
If it is liquid, then it is not solid. 
(a) If it is not liquid, then it is not solid. (b) If it is solid, then it is not liquid. 
(c) If it is not solid, then it is not liquid. (d) If it is solid, then it is liquid. (Ans : b)

24. Bina and Dhasaan are tributaries of which river? 
(a) Narmada (b) Tapti (c) Chambal (d) Betwa (Ans : d)

25. ………. was the captain of Indian Women's cricket team, who was born in Madhya Pradesh. 
(a) Sandhya Agarwal (b) Anjum Chopra (c) Mithali Raj (d) Shubangi Kulkarni (Ans : a)

26. Select the option, which is the logical equivalent of the statement given below– 
If my umbrella is up, then it is raining. 
(a) If it is raining, then my umbrella is up. (b) If my umbrella is not up, then it is not raining. 
(c) If it is not raining, then my umbrella is not up. (d) None of the above (Ans : c)

27. In 2008, who received the first copy of the e-passport in India? 
(a) Priyanka Chopra (b) Pratibha Patil (c) Sonia Gandhi (d) Sachin Tendulkar (Ans : b)

28. Farakka Barrage Project is designed for preservation and maintenance of– 
(a) Kochi port (b) Tuticorin port (c) Kolkata port (d) Mangalore port (Ans : c)

29. If cream cracker means computer programming, and its cream cracker, then it's programming. 
(a) True (b) False (c) May be (d) Irrelevant (Ans : a)

30. Where is the Nauradhi Sanctuary located? 
(a) Morena (b) Rewa (c) Banjar (d) Sagar (Ans : d)

Thursday, January 14, 2016

U.P. PCS Lower Subordinate Services (Pre.) Exam General Studies Solved Paper (Exam Held on 26-9-2010)

1. The Thermometer suitable to measure 2000°C temperature is—
(A) total radiation thermometer
(B) gas thermometer
(C) mercury thermometer
(D) vapour pressure thermometer
Ans : (A)

2. The gas used for artificial ripening of green fruit is—
(A) ethane
(B) ethylene
(C) carbon dioxide
(D) oxytocin
Ans : (B)

3. In which of the following districts India's largest mica belt is found ?
(A) Balaghat and Chhindwara
(B) Udaipur, Ajmer and Alwar
(C) Hazaribagh, Gaya and Monghyr
(D) Salem and Dharmapuri
Ans : (C)

4. Silent valley is situated in—
(A) Uttarakhand
(B) Kerala
(C) Arunachal
(D) Jammu and Kashmir
Ans : (B)

5. The fastest computer of the world is—
(A) Param-10000
(B) J-8
(C) Yenha-3
(D) T-3A
Ans : (A)

6. Which one of the following organizations is not related to science and technology ?
Ans : (C)

7. The name of the ICBM developed by India with a strike range of more than 2000 km is—
(A) Prithvi
(B) Trishul
(C) Akash
(D) Agni-II
Ans : (D)

8. Geneco technology is—
(A) A defence system for prevention from AIDS
(B) A method for the development of species for food crops
(C) A techniques for pre-information regarding genetic diseases
(D) A technique for prevention of cataract
Ans : (C)

9. 2, 4-D is—
(A) an insecticide
(B) an explosive
(C) a fungicide
(D) a herbicide
Ans : (D)

10. The percentage of nuclear enery in India's total energy generation is—
(A) 60%
(B) 27%
(C) 10%
(D) 2%
Ans : (D)

11. ‘Satish Dhawan Space Centre’ is located at—
(A) Vishakhapatnam
(B) Goa
(C) Shri Hari Kota
(D) Chennai
Ans : (C)

12. Which one of the following scientists has carried out researches both in the field of biology and physics ?
(A) Jagdish Chandra Bose
(B) Har Govind Khorana
(C) C. V. Raman
(D) Homi J. Bhabha
Ans : (A)

13. Which one of the following is a bacterial disease ?
(A) Herpes
(B) Polio
(C) Pox
(D) Tetanus
Ans : (D)

14. An Offshore Patrol Vessel was inducted into Coast Guard in March 2010. It is named—
(A) Eagle
(B) Vishwast
(C) Jatayu
(D) Aashwast
Ans : (B)

15. To insulate the country from disruptions in supply of crude oil, India has eastablished ‘India Strategic Petroleum Reserves Ltd.’ It will construct underground storages at three places. Identify the place which has not been selected for the purpose.
(A) Vishakhapatnam
(B) Manglore
(C) Padur
(D) Ankaleshwar
Ans : (D)

16. Presidents of USA and Russia recently signed a historic treaty committing their respective country to drastically reduce arms. It was signed on—
(A) 15 January, 2010
(B) 18 May, 2009
(C) 08 April, 2010
(D) 12 February, 2010
Ans : (C)

17. Russia has agreed recently to construct how many units of nuclear Reactor at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu ?
(A) 02
(B) 04
(C) 05
(D) 06
Ans : (A)

18. Who of the following has been appointed as Chairman of Mumbai Stock Exchange in March, 2010 ?
(A) Prof. Rakesh Mohan
(B) Prof. Bhagawati
(C) S. Ram Dorai
(D) Prof. Manoranjan Misra
Ans : (C)

19. Who of the following is the fourth woman Judge appointed in the Supreme Court in India in April, 2010 ?
(A) Justice Fatima Beevi
(B) Justice Sujata Manohar
(C) Justice Gyan Sudha Misra
(D) Justice Ruma Pal
Ans : (C)

20. A World Expo 2010 as a grand event to showcase the best achievements of human civilisation has been opened on May 1, 2010. Where was this expo opened ?
(A) In Shanghai
(B) In Kuala Lumpur
(C) In Tokyo
(D) In Moscow
Ans : (A)

21. Air Force Exercise Garuda-2010 was held by India jointly with which of the following countries ?
(A) France and Singapore
(B) Australia and France
(C) Singapore and Australia
(D) None of these
Ans : (A)

22. Which one of the following states bagged the ‘National Rural Health Mission Award’ of the Government of India in April, 2010 ?
(A) Uttar Pradesh
(B) Orissa
(C) Madhya Pradesh
(D) Rajasthan
Ans : (D)

23. Who of the following has been included in the ‘Hall of Fame’ by I.C.C. in March, 2010 ?
(A) Sachin Tendulkar
(B) Sunil Gavaskar
(C) Kapil Dev
(D) Anil Kumble
Ans : (C)

24. Who said, ‘Imperialism’ is dead as ‘dodo’ ?
(A) Ramje Macdonald
(B) Winston Churchill
(C) Clement Attlee
(D) Lord Wavell
Ans : (B)

25. The annual session of Muslim League in the year 1970 was held at—
(A) Dacca
(B) Karachi
(C) Aligarh
(D) Lucknow
Ans : (B)

26. The Indian National Congress had launched the Non Co-operation Movement in the year—
(A) 1918 A.D.
(B) 1919 A.D.
(C) 1920 A.D.
(D) 1921 A.D.
Ans : (C)

27. Who amongst the following made regular broadcast on Congress Radio operated during Quit India Movement ?
(A) Jaya Prakash Narayan
(B) Subhas Chandra Bose
(C) Ram Manohar Lohia
(D) Sucheta Kriplani
Ans : (C)

28. Which of the following newspapers advocated revolutionary terrorism during the period of Indian freedom struggle ?
1. Sandhya
2. Yugantar
3. Kaal
Choose the correct answer from the code given below :
Codes :
(A) 1, 2
(B) 1, 3
(C) 2, 3
(D) 1, 2, 3
Ans : (D)

29. The movement in India which became popular during the first World War was the—
(A) Swadeshi and Boycott Movement
(B) Home Rule Movement
(C) Separatist Movement
(D) Swarajist Party Movement
Ans : (B)

30. Arrange the following events in chronological order and choose the correct answer using the code given below :
1. Jallianwalabagh Massacre
2. Chaurichaura Episode
3. Champaran Movement
4. Moplah Rebellion
Codes :
(A) 1, 2, 3, 4
(B) 2, 1, 3, 4
(C) 3, 1, 4, 2
(D) 3, 1, 2, 4
Ans : (C)

31. Match List-I with List-II and choose the correct answer from the codes given below the Lists :
List-I(a) Abul Kalam Azad
(b) Pherozeshah Mehta
(c) Annie Besant
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
List-II1. Bombay Chronicle
2. Al-Hilal
3. Young India
4. New India
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 2 1 4 3
(B) 1 2 3 4
(C) 2 1 3 4
(D) 3 2 1 4
Ans : (A)

32. Who of the following was the President of Indian National Congress for consecutive six years ?
(A) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(B) Dadabhai Naoroji
(C) Abul Kalam Azad
(D) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Ans : (C)

33. Who of the following had started the Khilafat Movement ? Choose the answer from the code given below :
1. Shaukat Ali
2. Mohammad Ali
3. Shariatullah
4. Abul Kalam Azad
Codes :
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 1, 3 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) 1, 2, 3, 4
Ans : (A)

34. Kakori Conspiracy Case took place in the year—
(A) 1920
(B) 1925
(C) 1930
(D) 1935
Ans : (B)

35. In the Interim Government (1946) who held the Railways Portfolio ?
(A) Baldev Singh
(B) T. T. Chudrigar
(C) Asaf Ali
(D) Abdul Rab Nishtar
Ans : (C)

36. The Province where Indian National Congress did not form ministry after the General election of 1937 was—
(A) Orissa
(B) Bihar
(C) Madras
(D) Bengal
Ans : (D)

37. The transfer of capital of British India from Calcutta to Delhi was effected during the period of—
(A) Lord Minto
(B) Lord Hardinge
(C) Lord Chelmsford
(D) Lord Reading
Ans : (B)

38. Who was the leader of the Swadeshi Movement in Madras ?
(A) Srinivas Sastri
(B) Rajagopalachari
(C) Chidambaram Pillai
(D) Chintamani
Ans : (C)

39. Which one of the following statements is not correct about Dadabhai Naoroji ?
(A) He wrote a book ‘Poverty and Un-British rule in India’
(B) He worked as a professor of Gujarati in the University College, London
(C) He laid the foundation of woman's education in Bombay
(D) He was elected as a member of British Parliament on the ticket of the Conservative Party
Ans : (D)

40. Which one of the following was directly related to the Poona Pact of 1932 ?
(A) Indian women
(B) Indian labour class
(C) Indian farmers
(D) Indian depressed class
Ans : (D)

41. Subhas Chandra Bose had founded ‘Forward Bloc’ in the year—
(A) 1936 A.D.
(B) 1937 A.D.
(C) 1938 A.D.
(D) 1939 A.D.
Ans : (D)

42. The Gujarra minor rock edict, in which the name of Ashoka is mentioned, is located in—
(A) Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh
(B) Datia district of Madhya Pradesh
(C) Jaipur district of Rajasthan
(D) Champaran district of Bihar
Ans : (B)

43. Choose the correct pair from the following—
(A) Khajuraho —Chandellas
(B) Ellora caves —Saka
(C) Mahabalipuram—Rashtrakutas
(D) Meenakshi Temple—Pallavas
Ans : (A)

44. Which of the following sites has yielded skeleton of dog along with human skeleton in burial ?
(A) Brahmagiri
(B) Burzahom
(C) Chirand
(D) Maski
Ans : (B)

45. Which of the following Ashokan inscriptions is devoted to the principle of religious tolerance completely ?
(A) Rock edict XIII
(B) Rock edict XII
(C) Pillar inscription VII
(D) Bhabru minor rock edict
Ans : (C)

46. The earliest evidence of agriculture in Indian sub-continent comes from—
(A) Koldihwa
(B) Lahuradeva
(C) Mehargarh
(D) Tokwa
Ans : (C)

47. Which of the following mentions about the meeting of Sandrokottas (Chandragupta Maurya) with Alexander, the Great ?
(A) Pliny
(B) Justin
(C) Strabo
(D) Megasthenese
Ans : (D)

48. Which Sultan of Delhi assumed the title of Alexander the Great ?
(A) Balban
(B) Alauddin Khalji
(C) Mahammad Bin Tughlaq
(D) Sikandar Lodi
Ans : (B)

49. Who among the following was given the title of ‘Shaikh-ul-Hind’ ?
(A) Baba Fariduddin
(B) Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki
(C) Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti
(D) Shaikh Salim Chishti
Ans : (C)

50. Which one of the following is correctly matched ?
(A) Kakatiya : Devagiri
(B) Hoyasala : Dwarsamudra
(C) Yadav : Warangal
(D) Pandya : Madura
Ans : (B)

51. Who of the following introduced silver coin called ‘tanka’ ?
(A) Alauddin Khilji
(B) Qutub-ud-din Aibak
(C) Iltutmish
(D) Balban
Ans : (C)

52. From the following names identify the one who was not the brother of Humayun.
(A) Kamran
(B) Usman
(C) Askari
(D) Hindal
Ans : (B)

53. ‘Permanent Settlement’ was introduced during the tenure of—
(A) Warren Hastings
(B) Lord Cornwallis
(C) Sir John Shore
(D) Lord Wellesley
Ans : (B)

54. In whose reign was the ‘Treaty of Chittor’ signed between Mughal and the Rana of Mewar ?
(A) Akbar
(B) Jahangir
(C) Shahjahan
(D) Aurangzeb
Ans : (B)

55. Which medieval Indian ruler prior to Akbar has been referred to as the ‘Akbar of Kashmir’ ?
(A) Ibrahim Shah Sharqi
(B) Sultan Sikandar
(C) Zainul Abedin
(D) Mahmud Gawan
Ans : (C)

56. The Bengali leader who opposed socio-religious reforms and support orthodoxy was—
(A) Radhakant Deb
(B) Nemisadhan Bose
(C) Hemchandra Biswas
(D) Hemchandra De
Ans : (A)

57. Varindra Ghosh was associated with—
(A) Anushilan Samiti
(B) Sadhava Samaj
(C) Abhinava Bharat
(D) Swadesh Bandhav Samiti
Ans : (A)

58. Who was the first Sultan of Delhi to have levied ‘Haqq-i-Sharab’ or irrigation tax ?
(A) Alauddin Khalji
(B) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
(C) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
(D) Firoz Tughlaq
Ans : (D)

59. Which Sultan of Delhi had established a separate agriculture department and had planned the ‘rotation of crops’ ?
(A) Iltutmish
(B) Balban
(C) Alauddin Khalji
(D) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
Ans : (D)

60. As per world statistics 2008, what approximate percentage of world population lives in Asia ?
(A) 61%
(B) 63%
(C) 65%
(D) 66%
Ans : (A)

61. The State having highest scheduled caste population in India is—
(A) Rajasthan
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Madhya Pradesh
(D) Uttar Pradesh
Ans : (D)

62. Ujjain is situated at the bank of—
(A) Chambal river
(B) Kschipra river
(C) Godavari river
(D) Narmada river
Ans : (B)

63. Bagalihar Project lies on the—
(A) Jhelum river
(B) Ravi river
(C) Chenab river
(D) Indus river
Ans : (C)

64. Drakensberg is a mountain of—
(A) Botswana
(B) Namibia
(C) South Africa
(D) Zambia
Ans : (C)

65. Which one of the following is a cold current of the South Atlantic Ocean ?
(A) Canary Current
(B) Benguela Current
(C) Agulhas Current
(D) Brazil Current
Ans : (B)

66. Which region of the world, would you associate with ‘Bushmen’ ?
(A) East Africa
(B) Sahara Desert
(C) New Zealand
(D) Kalahari
Ans : (D)

67. Identify the only tributary of River Ganges which rises in the plains—
(A) Son
(B) Sharda or Saryu
(C) Gomti
(D) Ram Ganga
Ans : (C)

68. Uttar Pradesh holds the first place in India in the production of—
(A) Rice and wheat
(B) Wheat and sugarcane
(C) Rice and Sugarcane
(D) Wheat and pulses
Ans : (B)

69. Which one of the following is the tertiary activity ?
(A) Forestry
(B) Manufacturing
(C) Farming
(D) Marketing
Ans : (D)

70. Chilka lake is situated in—
(A) West Bengal
(B) Andhra Pradesh
(C) Orissa
(D) Tamil Nadu
Ans : (C)

71. The distance of Moon from the Earth is—
(A) 364 thousand kms
(B) 300 thousand kms
(C) 446 thousand kms
(D) 384 thousand kms
Ans : (D)

72. Japan is one of the leading industrial countries of the world because—
(A) It has ample mineral resources
(B) It has ample bio-energy resources
(C) Industrial revolution was initiated here
(D) It has high technological capacity
Ans : (D)

73. The planet which is called twin sister of earth is—
(A) Mercury
(B) Venus
(C) Mars
(D) Pluto
Ans : (B)

74. The deepest lake of the World is—
(A) Pushkar lake in Rajasthan
(B) Lake superior in America
(C) Victoria lake in Africa
(D) Baikal lake in Russia
Ans : (D)

75. The deepest trenches of the ocean are found in—
(A) Indian Ocean
(B) Pacific Ocean
(C) Arctic Ocean
(D) Atlantic Ocean
Ans : (B)

76. The Fundamental Duties of a citizen do not include duty—
(A) to protect and improve the natural environment
(B) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom
(C) to strive towards abolition of untouchability
(D) to develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of enquiry and reform
Ans : (C)

77. Education which was initially a state subject was transferred to the Concurrent list by the—
(A) 24th Amendment
(B) 25th Amendment
(C) 42nd Amendment
(D) 44th Amendment
Ans : (C)

78. The Constitution is silent in the Directive Principles of State Policy about—
(A) adult education
(B) living wages for workers
(C) free legal aid to the poor
(D) Primary education to children till they complete the age of 6 years
Ans : (A)

79. The Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly under Dr. B. R. Ambedkar had how many other members ?
(A) 7
(B) 6
(C) 5
(D) 4
Ans : (B)

80. The distribution of legislative power between the centre and the states in the Constitution is given in—
(A) Sixth schedule
(B) Seventh schedule
(C) Eighth schedule
(D) Ninth schedule
Ans : (B)

81. The number of High Court of Judicature in India is—
(A) Twenty
(B) Twenty one
(C) Twenty two
(D) Twenty three
Ans : (B)

82. Which one of the following states does not have a bicameral legislature ?
(A) Uttar Pradesh
(B) Madhya Pradesh
(C) Bihar
(D) Karnataka
Ans : (B)

83. The cardinal features of political system in India are—
1. It is a democratic republic.
2. It has a Parliamentary form of government.
3. The supreme power vests in people of India.
4. It provide for a unified authority
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
Codes :(A) 1 and 2
(B) 1, 2 and 3
(C) 2, 3 and 4
(D) All the four
Ans : (D)

84. The basis of determining dearness allowances to employees of India is—
(A) National Income
(B) Consumer Price Index
(C) Standard of Living
(D) Per Capita Income
Ans : (B)

85. Narsinham Committee related to—
(A) Higher education reforms
(B) Tax structure reforms
(C) Banking structure reforms
(D) Planning implementation reforms
Ans : (C)

86. Note issuing department of Reserve Bank of India should always possess the minimum gold stock worth—
(A) Rs. 85 crore
(B) Rs. 115 crore
(C) Rs, 200 crore
(D) None of the above
Ans : (B)

87. ‘Smart Money’ is a term used for—
(A) Internet Banking
(B) Credit Card
(C) Saving Account in the Bank
(D) Current Account in the Bank
Ans : (B)

88. The aim of differentiated Interest scheme was to provide concessional loans to—
(A) Weaker Section of Society
(B) Public Sector Industries
(C) Public Limited Companies
(D) Big Exporters
Ans : (A)

89. The first Industry to develop in India was the—
(A) Cottage industry
(B) Cement industry
(C) Iron and steel industry
(D) Engineering industry
Ans : (A)

90. Which one of the following states was having the highest Human Development Index in the year 2001 ?
(A) Assam
(B) Kerala
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Madhya Pradesh
Ans : (B)

91. In which one of the following Countries High Yield variety seed were developed for the first time ?
(A) Argentina
(B) China
(C) Mexico
(D) India
Ans : (C)

92. Which one of the following per capita daily calorie intake has been recommended for determining the poverty line in rural areas in India ?
(A) 2200
(B) 2400
(C) 2500
(D) 2600
Ans : (B)

93. In India which agency is entrusted with the collection of data of capital formation ?
(A) RBI and Central Statistical Organisation
(B) RBI and SBI
(C) RBI and all other Commercial Banks
(D) Central Statistical Organisation and National Sample Survey
Ans : (D)

94. Which one of the following duration is related to XI Five Year Plan in India ?
(A) 2005-10
(B) 2006-11
(C) 2007-12
(D) 2008-13
Ans : (C)

95. Open market operations of RBI refer to—
(A) buying and selling of shares
(B) auctioning of foreign exchange
(C) trading in securities
(D) transactions in gold
Ans : (A)

96. Which of the following is the smallest bone in the human body ?
(A) Vomer
(B) Stapes
(C) Malleus
(D) Incus
Ans : (B)
97. Which of the following is fish ?
(A) Sea cucumber
(B) Sea cow
(C) Sea horse
(D) Sea lion
Ans : (C)

98. The yellow colour of human urine is due to a pigment called—
(A) Cytochrome
(B) Urochrome
(C) Haemochrome
(D) Phenolichrome
Ans : (B)

99. The branch of study dealing with old age and aging is called—
(A) Oncology
(B) Gerentology
(C) Teratology
(D) Ornithology
Ans : (B)

100. Emphysaema is a disease caused by environmental pollution in which the affected organ of the body is—
(A) liver
(B) kidney
(C) lungs
(D) brain
Ans : (C)

Saturday, August 8, 2015

Chief Crops and the State Producing of Them

● Barley—U.P., Rajasthan, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
● Cardamom—Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
● Cashewnut—Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa and Odisha.
● Coffee—Karnataka, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Kerala.
● Cotton—Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Punjab, U.P., Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.
● Gram and Pulses—U.P., Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
● Ground nut—Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
● Jute—Asom, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.
● Maize—U.P., Bihar, Punjab and Rajasthan.
● Rice—West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, U.P. and Odisha.
● Rubber—Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andman and Nicobar.
● Saffron—Jammu and Kashmir State.
● Sugarcane—U.P., Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat.
● Tobacco—Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.
● Wheat—U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra.

Indian Towns Associated with Industries or Factories

  • Agra (U.P.)—Marble, leather, carpets, stoneware. 
  • Ahmedabad (Gujarat)—Cotton Textiles. 
  • Aligarh (U.P.)—Locks, cutlery and dairy industry. 
  • Ambernath (Maharashtra)—Machine Tools Prototype Factory. 
  • Ankleshwar (Gujarat)—Oil fields. 
  • Bangaluru (Karnataka)—Cotton textiles, toys, carpets, motors, Hindustan Aircraft, Telephone and Machine tools. 
  • Bareilly (U.P.)—Resin industry, Bamboo wood work, Match Factory. 
  • Batanagar—Shoes Bhilai (Chhattisgarh)—Steel. 
  • Bokaro (Jharkhand)—Steel plant. 
  • Mumbai—Cotton textiles, cinema, woollen goods etc. 
  • Kolkata (West Bengal)—Jute, Electric bulbs and lamps. 
  • Chitranjan (West Bengal)—Locomotive. 
  • Chhindwara (M. P.)—Coal, Lime-stone. 
  • Churk (U.P.)—Cement. 
  • Cochin (Kerala)—Ship-building, coffee, coconut, oil, coirmat rubber. 
  • Cyberabad (Andhra Pradesh)—Electronics Computer etc. Information Technology. 
  • Dalmianagar (Jharkhand)—Cement. 
  • Delhi—D.D.T., Textiles and Housing. 
  • Dhariwal (Punjab)—Woollen goods. 
  • Digboi—Petroleum. 
  • Durgapur (West Bengal)—Steel. 
  • Firozabad (U.P.)—Glass. 
  • Guntur (A.P.)—Cotton manufacture. 
  • Gwalior (M.P.)—Pottery. 
  • Jaipur (Raj.)—Embroidery, pottery, brassware. 
  • Jalahalli—Machine Tools Factory and Electronics. 
  • Jamshedpur (Jharkhand)—Iron and Steel goods. 
  • Jharia (Jharkhand)—Coal. 
  • Katni (M.P.)—Cement. 
  • Kalamassery (Kerala)—Hindustan Machine Tools. 
  • Khetri (Rajasthan)—Copper. 
  • Ludhiana (Punjab)—Hosiery. 
  • Moradabad (U.P.)—Utensils, Calico-printing. 
  • Mysore (Karnataka)—Silk. 
  • Narora (U.P.)—Atomic Power Unit. 
  • Nangal (Punjab)—Fertilizers. 
  • Nepanagar (M.P.)—Newsprint. 
  • Neyveli—Lignite. Nunamati—Oil-refining. 
  • Perambur (Tamil Nadu)—Integral Coach Factory. 
  • Pimpri (Maharashtra)—Penicillin Factory. 
  • Pinjore (Haryana)—Hindustan Machine Tools. 
  • Rana Pratap Sagar (Rajasthan)—Hydro Power Plant. 
  • Rawatbhata (Raj.)—Atomic Power Plant near Kota. 
  • Raniganj (West Bengal)—Coal mines. 
  • Renukoote (U.P.)—Hindustan Aluminium works. 
  • Rourkela (Odisha)—Steel, Fertilizers. 
  • Rupnarainpur (West Bengal)—Cables. 
  • Saharanpur (U.P.)—Mangoes, Cigarette factory, paper mill. 
  • Sindri (Jharkhand)—Fertilizers. 
  • Singareni (Andhra Pradesh)—Coal. 
  • Singhbhum (Jharkhand)—Copper. 
  • Srinagar (Kashmir)—Woollen Shawls, silks, wood work embroidery. 
  • Surajpur (Haryana)—Cement factory. 
  • Surat (Gujarat)—Textiles. Sholapur (Maharashtra)—Cotton textiles. 
  • Tarapur (Maharashtra)—Atomic Power Plant. 
  • Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu)—Cigar. 
  • Titagarh (West Bengal)—Paper and Jute. 
  • Trombay (Maharashtra)—Atomic Reactors, Fertilizers, oil refineries, Uranium Thorium Factory.
  •  Vijaypur (M.P.)—Fertilizers. 
  • Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)—Ship building, Iron and Steel and Oil refinery. 
  • Zainkot (Jammu and Kashmir)—Hindustan Machine Tools (Watches).

Sunday, July 26, 2015

Famous Volcanoes in the World

» Erebus-Antarctica
» Ojos dei Saldo-Argentina-Chile
» Cameroon Mt.-Cameroon
» Guallatiri-Chile
» Lascar-Chile
» Tupungatito-Chile
» Nevado del Ruiz-Colombia
» Purace-Colombia
Cotopaxi Valcano
» Cotopaxi-Ecuador
» Sangay-Ecuador
» Tacana-Guatemala
Barren Island Valcano (Andaman)
» Tajumulco-Guatemala
» Barren Island (Andaman)-India
» Semeru-Indonesia (Java)
» Rindjiani-Indonesia (Lombok)
Mt. Etna Valcano
» Mt. Etna-Italy
» Mt. Unzen-Japan
» Popocatepetl-Mexico
» Mt.Pinatubo-Philippines
» Klyuchevskaya Sopka-Russia
» Pico de Teide-Spain
» Mauna Loa-US
» Nyirangongo-Zaire

Sunday, June 21, 2015

Protection of Environment For Sustainable Development

The protection of environment is needed for sustainable development. The Industrial pollution, degradation of forests, depletion of ozone layer, the green house gases results in global warming and climate which will have an adverse impact on environment and human health. There is a need for conservation of Biodiversity, protection of wetlands and prevention of environmental pollution, promotion of ecological balance enables sustainable development. There are several provisions provided in Indian Constitution for Protection of environment. There are certain legislations enacted viz. Environment Protection Act, Wildlife Preservation Act, Biodiversity Conservation Act, water and Air pollution prevention Acts etc The Judiciary playing a vital role in protection of Environment.  Through Judicial Activism the Supreme Court can issue directions under writ Jurisdiction under Article 32 of Indian Constitution. The United Nation Organisation passed several UN conventions like Ramsar Convention on protection of wetlands, and UN convention on Biodiversity etc. World Environment Day is being celebrated across the world on 5th June every year.
Global Warming and Climate change
Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate. Even though it is an ongoing debate, it is proved by the scientists that the planet is warming. Global warming is for real The average global temperatures are higher than they have ever been during the past millennium, and the levels of CO in the atmosphere have e crossed all previous records. The climate is changing. The earth is warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening, and human-induced. With global warming on the increase and species and their habitats on the decrease, chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally are diminishing. Many are agreed that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet. Recent years show increasing temperatures in various regions, and  increasing extremities in weather patterns. Climate Change resulting from increased green house gases concentrations has the potential to harm societies and eco-systems. In particular, agriculture, forestry, water resources, human health, costal settlements and natural eco-systems will need to adapt to a changing climate or face diminishing functions. The changing climate patterns, and especially increased frequency and severity of extreme events, will increase vulnerability to the natural disasters, both slower on set ones such as drought and rapid onset disaster such as flood and cyclones.
Forest Conservation
The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was emphasized in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognizing the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Also in 1988, the Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was amended to facilitate stricter conservation measures. The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasizes the need to combine India's effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. India defines forest management as one where the economic needs of local communities are not ignored; rather forests are sustained while meeting nation's economic needs and local issues through scientific forestry.
Protection of Wetlands
Wetlands are complex ecosystems and encompass a wide range of inland, coastal and marine habitats. They share the characteristics of both wet and dry environments and show immense diversity based on their genesis, geographical location, hydrological regimes and substrate factors. They include flood plains, swamps, marshes, fishponds, tidal marshes natural and man-made wetlands. Among the most productive life support, wetlands have immense socio-economic and ecological importance for mankind. They are crucial to the survival of natural biodiversity. They provide suitable habitats for endangered and rare species of birds and animals, endemic plants, insects besides sustaining migratory birds. India has a wealth of wetland ecosystems distributed in different geographical regions. India is also a signatory to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and the Convention of Biological Diversity; Apart from government regulation, development of better monitoring methods is needed to increase the knowledge of the physical and biological characteristics of each wetland resource, and to gain, from this knowledge, a better understanding of wetland dynamics and their controlling processes. India being one of the mega diverse nations of the world should strive to conserve the ecological character of these ecosystems along with the biodiversity of the flora and fauna associated with these ecosystems. The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 158 Contracting Parties to the Convention, with 1758 wetland sites, totaling 161 million hectares, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. Ramsar Convention is the only global environment treaty dealing with a particular ecosystem. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was developed as a means to call international attention to the rate at which wetland habitats were disappearing, due to lack of understanding of their important functions, values, goods and services. Governments which have joined the Convention are expressing their willingness to make a commitment for helping to reverse that history of wetland loss and degradation. In addition, many wetlands are international systems lying across the boundaries of two or more countries, or are part of river basins that include more than one country.
Conservation of Biodiversity
Conservation of Biodiversity is the need of the hour. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is a federal legislation enacted by the Parliament of India for preservation of biological diversity in India, and provides mechanism for equitable sharing of benefits arising out of use of traditional biological resources and knowledge. The Act was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party. The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act 2002. The NBA is a Statutory, Autonomous Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for the Government of India on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.
Wildlife Conservation
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans.  Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes. Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. Wildlife Conservation Act 2002 was enacted to protect wildlife in India. The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable population of tiger in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Project Elephant (PE), a centrally sponsored scheme, was launched in February 1992 to provide financial and technical support to major elephant bearing States in the country for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors.
Ozone Depletion
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena, there are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events. The details of polar ozone hole formation differ from that of mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both is catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic halogens. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photo dissociation of man-made halocarbon refrigerants (CFCsfreonshalons). These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halo-carbons increased. CFCs and other contributory substances are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). This is used to protect the ozone layer which protect humans from ultra-violet rays of Sun.
Environmental Impact Assessment
An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impacts that a proposed project may have on the environment, consisting of the environmental, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made." EIAs are unique in that they do not require adherence to a predetermined environmental outcome, but rather they require decision ­makers to account for environmental values in their decisions and to justify those decisions in light of detailed environmental studies and public comments on the potential environmental impacts.
Environment and Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution guarantees justice, liberty and equality to all citizens of the country. In Maneka Gandhi's case the court gave a new dimension to Article 21. It held that the right to 'live' is not merely confined to physical existence but it include within its ambit the right to live with human dignity. The same view was reflected by Court in Francis Coralie V. Union Territory of Delhi said that the right to live is not restricted to mere animal existence. Article 21 also constitute right to get pollution free water and air. Article 48 of Directive Principles of State Policy directs that the State to take steps to organize agriculture and animal husbandary on modern and scientific lines. Again Article 48-A requires the State to take steps to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. In M.C. Mehta (II) V. Union of India, the Supreme Court, relying on Article 48-A gave direction to Central and State Governments and various local bodies and Boards under the various statutes to take appropriate steps for the prevention and control of pollution of water. Article 51-A says that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and impove the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living.
Role of Judiciary in Environmental Protection
One of the most innovative parts of the Constitution is that right to enforce the fundamental rights by moving Supreme Court is itself a fundamental right under article 32 of the ConstitutionWrit juridisdiction is conferred on Supreme Court under Article 32 and High Courts under Article 226 of the Constitution. Under these provisions Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue any drections or orders writ, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto and certiorari, whichever is appropriate High Court is wider in scope than that of Supreme Court. However, it may be pointed out that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all Courts within the territory of India. Moreover, the Supreme Court in exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it. The Supreme Court and also various High Courts have taken innumerable measures in a series of their landmark judgements. Over the years the apex Court has been paying special attention for the protection of environment by giving effective directions to all the persons concerned with the matter by invoking its powers under the Article 32. An analysis of the various decisions of the Supreme Court reveals that the Apex Court has exercised its writ jurisdiction when there was leakage of hazardous gases like Chlorine from the Shri Ram Industries, throwing of waste material of alchohal plants into the adjoining nala resulting in spreading of obnoxious cells being released apart from mosquito breeding, discharge of highly toxic affluent by the tanneries, safety and insurance for the benefit of workers at the cost of employer, to entertain public grievances relating to environment in the nature of public inters litigation for banning of harmful drugs, pollution of holy Ganga by municipal sewage and industrial affulents, illegal mining of effecting ecology, pollution of waters in river polar in Tamil Nadu due to discharge of untreated affulents, assuring sustainable development detrimental to the forest growth, damage to the Taj Mahal, one of the seven wonders of the world, protecting the people from suffering of respiratory and other diseases reminding the enforecment agencies to do the job. The Environment pollution is not confined only to any particular country or particular region. It is widening and crossing over the state and political boundaries affecting land, water, air, space, perversely. Realising the degraded consequences of the environmental pollution and its future impact on living being the battle legal, political and scientific, has started in all forums of international, regional and national organizations.
The National Green Tribunal was established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice. New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other four places of sitting of the Tribunal.
Legislations on Environment
Environmental quality has deteriorated during past two decades. This is because of the gap between the intent of the policy and the actual achievement. India's environmental problems are mainly due to its high population and limited natural resources. Protection of the environment poses a fundamental challenge to the nations desire to industrialize faster. Various efforts are being made to control India's environmental problems. The government has recognized the need for planned land and water resource management and the protection of environmental resources is included in the constitution since 1976. The constitution, 42th amendment act of 1977 obligates the Government to protect and improve environment for the good of society as a whole. It also makes an environmental protection an obligation of the state and individual citizen and reads, "The state shall Endeavour to protect and improve the environmental and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country." Article 51-A (9) states "It shall be duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures." A lot of Acts like Biodiversity Conservation Act, environment Protection Act, Wildlife Preservation Act, Water Pollution Prevention Act, Air Pollution Prevention Act etc. are enacted from time to time for environment preservation.
Sustainable Development

Economic development also refer as generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area. Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. Such actions can involve multiple areas including development of human capitalcritica infrastructure,  regional competitivenessenvironmental,sustainabilitysocial,inclusionhealthsafetyliteracy, and other initiatives. Economic development differs from economic growth. Economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP. Consequently, as economist Amartya Sen points out: “economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development. We should handover Quality Air, land and environment to future generations.