Tuesday, July 28, 2015

Official Residences

» American President-White House
White House
» Brazil President-Palacio da Alvorada
» Britain Prime Minister-10, Downing Street
» Canada Prime Minister-24 Sussex Drive 
» French President-Elysee Palace 
» Germany President-Bellevue Palace
Rashtrapathi Bhavan
» Indian President-Rashtrapathi Bhavan
» Indian Prime Minister-No. 7, Race Course Road
» India Governor’s-Raj Bhavan 
» King & Queen of Britain-Bekkingham Palace 
» Kongo President-Marbil Palace
Narayan Hithi Palace
» Nepal King-Narayan Hithi Palace
» Pakistan President-Ivane Sadan
» Pope-Vatican Palace 
» Russia President-Kremlin 
» Spain King-Royal Palace 
» South Korean President-Blue House 
» Sreelankan President-Temple Trees

Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (RIMES)

RIMES came into existence as a multi-lateral technical cooperation platform formally on 30th April 2009 with the first batch of 5 countries signing the Cooperation Agreement on the RIMES for Africa and Asia in consonance with Articles 5 and 25 of the United Nations. RIMES Secretariat is established by the Republic of Maldives at Maldives Meteorological Services, Ministry of Environment and Transport, Male.  The RIMES Programme Unit and the RIMES Regional Facility are located at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Campus in Pathumthani, Near Bangkok, Thailand.

RIMES had dedicated its efforts to build institutional structures for holistically dealing all aspects of multi-hazard and climate risk management for bringing a major shift to make all RIMES country partners fully disaster resilient by upgrading the early warning systems as per their national circumstances.

The RIMES council in its first meeting held on 30th April 2009 constituted an Executive Board to translate designated mandates into actionable initiatives.  Appreciating the prominence gained by India in the Indian Ocean region after the setting up of the state-of-the art Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC) at the ESSO-INCOIS, Hyderabad, and the associated professional accomplishments, India has been elected to the Chair of the RIMES Executive Board.  With the clearance of the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), Government of India, Dr Shailesh Nayak, Secretary to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, accepted the Chair of the RIMES Executive Board. 

Union Cabinet has approved the Cooperation Agreement with the RIMES on 7th December, 2010 and India formally joined the RIMES family on 24th Feb., 2011 by signing the Agreement.  RIMES Executive Council has elected India as its Chairman with all other  member states/countries as members.

 The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, UK, has signed an MOU with RIMES to support for building country specific Early Warning Systems under its umbrella.

Sunday, July 26, 2015

Measurements of different Sports

» Cricket-Pitch: 20.12 meters.
Bat: 96.5 cm length and 10.8 cm width.
Ball: 155.9 to 163 grams.
Cricket Pitch
» Football-Field: 100 x 64 m to 110 x 75 m.
Football Field
» Volleyball-Court: 18 m x 9 m.
Net: 9.5 m x 1 m x 2.43 m.
» Hockey-Field: 100 x 55 yards to 100 x 60 yards.
Ball: 5.50 ounces to 5.75 ounces
» Badminton-Court: 13.40 m x 5.18 m.
Net: 1.524 m high.
Shuttle: 4.73 to 5.50 gms.
» Table Tennis-Table: 275 cm x 152.5 cm, 76 cm above the ground (floor).
Ball: 37.2 to 38.2 millimeter (diameter); 9.40 to 9.53 gms.
» Lawn Tennis-Court: 23.77 x 8.23 meters.
Ball: 56.7 gms to 58.5 gms. (weight); 6.35 cm to 6.67 cms (diameter).
Lawn Tennis Court
» Khokho-Field: 34 x 10 m to 34 x 16 meters.
» Kabaddi-Field: 13 x 10 meters. 
» Marathon Race-Route Length: 42,195 m-26 miles, 385 yards. 
» Derby  Course-Route length: 2400 meters (or) 11/2 miles.

Famous Volcanoes in the World

» Erebus-Antarctica
» Ojos dei Saldo-Argentina-Chile
» Cameroon Mt.-Cameroon
» Guallatiri-Chile
» Lascar-Chile
» Tupungatito-Chile
» Nevado del Ruiz-Colombia
» Purace-Colombia
Cotopaxi Valcano
» Cotopaxi-Ecuador
» Sangay-Ecuador
» Tacana-Guatemala
Barren Island Valcano (Andaman)
» Tajumulco-Guatemala
» Barren Island (Andaman)-India
» Semeru-Indonesia (Java)
» Rindjiani-Indonesia (Lombok)
Mt. Etna Valcano
» Mt. Etna-Italy
» Mt. Unzen-Japan
» Popocatepetl-Mexico
» Mt.Pinatubo-Philippines
» Klyuchevskaya Sopka-Russia
» Pico de Teide-Spain
» Mauna Loa-US
» Nyirangongo-Zaire

Famous Scientists and their Inventions List

Physics and Chemistry

Archimedes—Invention of the famous Archimedean law, discovery of the principles of lever and specific gravity.
Avogadro—An Italian scientists known for Avogadro’s hypothesis.
Bacquarrel—Radio-activity of uranium.
Baird J.L.—Television.
Benjamin Franklin—Lightning conductor.
Bhabha H.J.—Research in cosmic rays and quantum theory.
Binet—Intelligence tests.
Bose, J.C.—Crescograph.
Bose, S.N.—Discovery of nuclear particles ‘Boson’.
Bohr—Electron Theory, Atomic structure.
Carothers—Nylon Plastics.
Cavendish—Discovery of hydrogen, rare gases, chemical composition of water.
Charles Darwin—Theory of Evolution; Origin of Species.
Curie, Madame—Radium.
Dalton—Law of partial pressures; Atomic theory; laws of chemical combination; the law of multiple proportions.
Democritus—(Greek Philosopher)—Atomic theory.
Dewar—Thermos flask.
Einstein—Theory of relativity.
Euclid—Science of geometry.
Fahrenheit—Fahrenheit mercury thermometric scale in which freezing point is—32° and boiling point is 212°.
Farady—Electromagnetic induction and laws of electrolysis.
Fermi—Artificial splitting of atoms.
Gay Lussac—Law of gases.
Herschel. William—Discovered the planet Uranus.
Hertz—Electrical waves.
Hoffman—Aniline dye.
Kelvin, Lord—Dynamic theory of heat.
Khorana, Dr. Hargovind—Interpretation of genetic code.
Lawrence—Invention of cyclotron.
Lee de Forest—Talkies, radio, telephone.
Lockyer—Helium gas.
Louis Braille—Discovered and perfected his system of reading and writing for the blind.
Marconi—Wireless telegraphy, radio.
Maxwell—Electromagnetic theory of light.
Mendel—Laws of heredity.
Mendeleev—Periodic table.
Millikan, R.A.—Cosmic rays.
Newton—Laws of Motion, laws of gravitation.
Otto Hahn—Discovery of uranium fission.
Planck—Quantum theory.
Priestley—Discovery of oxygen.
Raman C.V.—‘Raman Effect’.
Ramnathan—Molecular scattering of light in fluids.
Ramanujam—A great Indian mathematician.
Ramsay—Discovery of inert gases like Argon, Helium, Neon etc.
Robert Mallet—Seismograph.
Roger Bacon—Discovery of gun powder.
Rontgen—Discovery of X-rays.
Rutherford—Succeeded in splitting the atom for the first time.
Stephenson—British engineer-to put locomotive on the line.
Thomson J.J.—Discovered electron.
Urey—Discovery of Heavy Hydrogen.
Volta—Current electricity and electric battery.
Wadia D.N.—Meteorology.
Ykawa. Hideki—Meson.

Pioneers in Mechanical Inventions and Discoveries

Austin—Motor car.
Baird J.L.—Television.
Bell, Graham—Telephone.
Gutenburg—Printing Press.
Daimler—Gas engine, Automobile.
Davy—Miner’s Safety Lamp.
Diesel—Internal combustion.
Edison—First electric bulb and gramophone.
Frank Whittle—Jet propulsion.
Franklin Benjamin—Lightning conductor.
James Puckle—Machine Gun.
Hoe—Rotary Printing Press.
James Watt—Steam engine (1769).
Macmillan—Bicycle (1842).
Montgolfer—Balloon (1883).
R.A. Watson Watt—Radar.
Stephenson—Railway engine.
Swinton—Military tank.
W. & O. Wright—Aeroplane.
Waterman—Fountain pen.
Whittle, Frank—Jet propulsion.
Zeis—Lenses, Camera.

Medical Inventions & Discoveries

Banting—Insulin (a cure for diabetes).
Bernard Christian—Replacing the human heart.
Brahmchari, U.M.—Cure of Kala-a-zar fever.
Domagk—Sulpha drugs as bactericides.
Fleming Alexander—Penicillin (in 1929).
Harvey—Circulation of blood.
Hahnemann—Founder of Homeopathy.
Hopkins. F.G.—Vitamin D.
Jenner—Smallpox Vaccination.
Koch Robert—Tubercle Bacillus.
Lister, Lord—Antiseptic surgery.
Pasteur Louis—Treatment of rabies; cure of hydrophobia.
Ronald Ross—Malaria parasite.
Salk Jonas E.—Anti-polio. Vaccine.
Simpson and Harrison—Chloroform.

Geographical Discoveries

Amundsen—Discovered South Pole in Dec. 14, 1911.
Armstrong, Neil A.—(U.S.A.) First person to set foot on the moon on July 20, 1969.
Cabot Sebastian—Discovered New Found land in 1497.
Columbus Christopher—Discovered America in 1492 and South America in 1498.
Copernicus—Discovered solar system in 1540. He propounded the astronomical system which bears his name.
Edmund Hillary—Conquered Mt. Everest on May 29, 1953, along with Sherpa Tenzing.
Ferdinand de Lesseps—Conceived the plan of the Suez Canal on which work was completed in 1969.
Henry Hundson—Discovered Hudson Bay in 1610.
Kepler—Discovered the Laws of Planetary Motion in 1609.
Magellan—Sailed round the World in 1519.
Marco Polo—A Venetian Traveller who explored China (in 1272) India. South—eastern countries.
Peary, Robert—Discovered North Pole in 1909.
Tabei Mrs. Junko—She is the first-ever woman to climb Mt. Everest on May 16, 1975.
Tasman—Dutch navigator, discovered the Tasmania Island and New Zealand in 1649.
Vasco-De-Gama—The Portuguese sailor rounded the Cape of Good Hope and discovered sea route to India and reached Calicut (now Khozikhode) in 1498.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Objective Questions on Indian Penal Code 1860

1. Which one of the following is not essential for an offence? 
(A) Intention (B) Motive (C) Prohibited act (D) Punishment for act (Ans : B)

2. In which of the following mens rea has been considered to be an essential element of an offence? 
(A) Srinivasmal Barolia Vs. Emperor (B) R. Vs. Tolsen 
(C) Nathulal Vs. State of Madhya Pradesh (D) All of the above (Ans : D)

3. Which one of the following is not a valuable security? 
(A) A postal receipt for an insured parcel (B) A rent note 
(C) A promissory note (D) Added of divoree (Ans : D)

4. Common Intention means– 
(A) Similar intention (B) Same intention 
(C) Sharing of intention by all persons (D) Common plans (Ans : C)

5. Nothing is an offence which is done by a child of–
(A) Eight years (B) Ten years (C) Seven years (D) Twelve years (Ans : C)

6. What punishment may be awarded to the person, whose act is covered under general exceptions? 
(A) No punishment (B) Half of the punishment prescribed for that offence 
(C) One-fourth the of the punishment prescribed for offence (D) Depends upon discretion of court (Ans : A)

7. Insanity is– 
(A) Lack of free will (B) Incapacity produced due to drunkenness 
(C) Incapable of knowing nature of act committed (D) Diseased mind (Ans : D)

8. A instigates B to give false evidence here if B does not give false evidence what offence A has committed? 
(A) A is guilty of no offence (B) Attempt to give false evidence 
(C) Offence punishable with the imprisonment of any description provided for that offence for a term which may extend to one-fourth part of longest term provided for that offence and with fine 
(D) None of above (Ans : C)

9. Minimum number of persons required to commit an affray is– 
(A) Five (B) Two (C) Ten (D) Eleven (Ans : B)

10. A puts his hand in pocket of B for stealing money but pocket was empty. A is guilty of– 
(A) Theft (B) Not guilty of theft (C) Guilty of attempt to commit theft (D) Not guilty of any offence (Ans : C)

11. Any hurt is grievous if it causes sufferer to be in severe bodily pain or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits during space of– (Chhat. J.S.) 
(A) Fifteen days (B) Twenty days (C) Twenty five days (D) Thirty days (Ans : B)

12. Sexual intercourse by a man with a woman even with her consent is a rape if she is below age of– 
(A) 17 years (B) 16 years (C) 19 years (D) 18 years (Ans : B)

13. For abduction abducted person should be– 
(A) Below 16 years of age (B) Below 18 years of age (C) insane person (D) Of any age (Ans : D)

14. A does sexual intercourse with a widow below 16 years of age with her consent– 
(A) A has not committed Rape (B) A has committed Adultery 
(C) A has committed Rape with B (D) Nothing above is correct (Ans : C)

15. Making preparation to commit dacoity is punishable in the Indian Penal Code 1860 under– 
(A) Section 393 (B) Section 395(C) Section 398 (D) Section 399 (Ans : D)

16. There is no offence of adultery if it is committed, with consent of– 
(A) Woman (B) Husband of woman (C) Member of family of woman 

(D) Wife of adulterer (Ans : b) 

17. A cheats by pretending to be B, a person who is deceased. A commits– 
(A) Cheating (B) Cheating by presentation (C) Extortion (D) Dacoity (Ans : B)

18. A commits house trespass by entering Z’s house through a window it is– 
(A) Mischief (B) House-breaking (C) Extortion (D) None of the above (Ans : B)

19. A finds a purse with money not knowing to whom it belongs he afterwards discovers that it belongs to B and appropriates to his own use. A is guilty of– 
(A) Theft (B) Criminal Misappropriation (C) Criminal Breach of Trust (D) Cheating (Ans : B)

20. A makes an attempt to pick pocket of B by thrusting his hand into B’s pocket. A fails in attempt in consequence of B’s having nothing in his pocket. A is guilty of– 
(A) No offence (B) Theft (C) Attempt of theft (D) Using Criminal Force (Ans : c) 

Sunday, June 21, 2015

Famous cities of India and their sobriquets

Abode of God: Allahabad
Boston of India: Ahmadabad
City of Nawabs:  Lucknow
City of the Golden Temple: Amritsar
Pink City: Jaipur
Pittsburg of India: Jamshedpur
Silicon Valley of India: Bangalore
Twin Cities: Hyderabad-Secunderabad
City of Buildings: Kolkata
City of Festivals: Madurai
Queen of the Arabian Sea: Kochi

Changed Names of Cities and Nations

Previous NameChanged Name
Dutch East IndiesIndonesia
CeylonSri Lanka
East TimorLoro Sae
EgyptUnited Arab Rep
Gold CoastGhana
HollandThe Netherlands
Northern RhodesiaZambia
South West AfricaNamibia

Protection of Environment For Sustainable Development

The protection of environment is needed for sustainable development. The Industrial pollution, degradation of forests, depletion of ozone layer, the green house gases results in global warming and climate which will have an adverse impact on environment and human health. There is a need for conservation of Biodiversity, protection of wetlands and prevention of environmental pollution, promotion of ecological balance enables sustainable development. There are several provisions provided in Indian Constitution for Protection of environment. There are certain legislations enacted viz. Environment Protection Act, Wildlife Preservation Act, Biodiversity Conservation Act, water and Air pollution prevention Acts etc The Judiciary playing a vital role in protection of Environment.  Through Judicial Activism the Supreme Court can issue directions under writ Jurisdiction under Article 32 of Indian Constitution. The United Nation Organisation passed several UN conventions like Ramsar Convention on protection of wetlands, and UN convention on Biodiversity etc. World Environment Day is being celebrated across the world on 5th June every year.
Global Warming and Climate change
Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate. Even though it is an ongoing debate, it is proved by the scientists that the planet is warming. Global warming is for real The average global temperatures are higher than they have ever been during the past millennium, and the levels of CO in the atmosphere have e crossed all previous records. The climate is changing. The earth is warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening, and human-induced. With global warming on the increase and species and their habitats on the decrease, chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally are diminishing. Many are agreed that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet. Recent years show increasing temperatures in various regions, and  increasing extremities in weather patterns. Climate Change resulting from increased green house gases concentrations has the potential to harm societies and eco-systems. In particular, agriculture, forestry, water resources, human health, costal settlements and natural eco-systems will need to adapt to a changing climate or face diminishing functions. The changing climate patterns, and especially increased frequency and severity of extreme events, will increase vulnerability to the natural disasters, both slower on set ones such as drought and rapid onset disaster such as flood and cyclones.
Forest Conservation
The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was emphasized in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognizing the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Also in 1988, the Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was amended to facilitate stricter conservation measures. The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasizes the need to combine India's effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. India defines forest management as one where the economic needs of local communities are not ignored; rather forests are sustained while meeting nation's economic needs and local issues through scientific forestry.
Protection of Wetlands
Wetlands are complex ecosystems and encompass a wide range of inland, coastal and marine habitats. They share the characteristics of both wet and dry environments and show immense diversity based on their genesis, geographical location, hydrological regimes and substrate factors. They include flood plains, swamps, marshes, fishponds, tidal marshes natural and man-made wetlands. Among the most productive life support, wetlands have immense socio-economic and ecological importance for mankind. They are crucial to the survival of natural biodiversity. They provide suitable habitats for endangered and rare species of birds and animals, endemic plants, insects besides sustaining migratory birds. India has a wealth of wetland ecosystems distributed in different geographical regions. India is also a signatory to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and the Convention of Biological Diversity; Apart from government regulation, development of better monitoring methods is needed to increase the knowledge of the physical and biological characteristics of each wetland resource, and to gain, from this knowledge, a better understanding of wetland dynamics and their controlling processes. India being one of the mega diverse nations of the world should strive to conserve the ecological character of these ecosystems along with the biodiversity of the flora and fauna associated with these ecosystems. The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 158 Contracting Parties to the Convention, with 1758 wetland sites, totaling 161 million hectares, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. Ramsar Convention is the only global environment treaty dealing with a particular ecosystem. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was developed as a means to call international attention to the rate at which wetland habitats were disappearing, due to lack of understanding of their important functions, values, goods and services. Governments which have joined the Convention are expressing their willingness to make a commitment for helping to reverse that history of wetland loss and degradation. In addition, many wetlands are international systems lying across the boundaries of two or more countries, or are part of river basins that include more than one country.
Conservation of Biodiversity
Conservation of Biodiversity is the need of the hour. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is a federal legislation enacted by the Parliament of India for preservation of biological diversity in India, and provides mechanism for equitable sharing of benefits arising out of use of traditional biological resources and knowledge. The Act was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party. The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act 2002. The NBA is a Statutory, Autonomous Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for the Government of India on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.
Wildlife Conservation
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans.  Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes. Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. Wildlife Conservation Act 2002 was enacted to protect wildlife in India. The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable population of tiger in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Project Elephant (PE), a centrally sponsored scheme, was launched in February 1992 to provide financial and technical support to major elephant bearing States in the country for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors.
Ozone Depletion
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena, there are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events. The details of polar ozone hole formation differ from that of mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both is catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic halogens. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photo dissociation of man-made halocarbon refrigerants (CFCsfreonshalons). These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halo-carbons increased. CFCs and other contributory substances are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). This is used to protect the ozone layer which protect humans from ultra-violet rays of Sun.
Environmental Impact Assessment
An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impacts that a proposed project may have on the environment, consisting of the environmental, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made." EIAs are unique in that they do not require adherence to a predetermined environmental outcome, but rather they require decision ­makers to account for environmental values in their decisions and to justify those decisions in light of detailed environmental studies and public comments on the potential environmental impacts.
Environment and Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution guarantees justice, liberty and equality to all citizens of the country. In Maneka Gandhi's case the court gave a new dimension to Article 21. It held that the right to 'live' is not merely confined to physical existence but it include within its ambit the right to live with human dignity. The same view was reflected by Court in Francis Coralie V. Union Territory of Delhi said that the right to live is not restricted to mere animal existence. Article 21 also constitute right to get pollution free water and air. Article 48 of Directive Principles of State Policy directs that the State to take steps to organize agriculture and animal husbandary on modern and scientific lines. Again Article 48-A requires the State to take steps to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. In M.C. Mehta (II) V. Union of India, the Supreme Court, relying on Article 48-A gave direction to Central and State Governments and various local bodies and Boards under the various statutes to take appropriate steps for the prevention and control of pollution of water. Article 51-A says that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and impove the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living.
Role of Judiciary in Environmental Protection
One of the most innovative parts of the Constitution is that right to enforce the fundamental rights by moving Supreme Court is itself a fundamental right under article 32 of the ConstitutionWrit juridisdiction is conferred on Supreme Court under Article 32 and High Courts under Article 226 of the Constitution. Under these provisions Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue any drections or orders writ, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto and certiorari, whichever is appropriate High Court is wider in scope than that of Supreme Court. However, it may be pointed out that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all Courts within the territory of India. Moreover, the Supreme Court in exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it. The Supreme Court and also various High Courts have taken innumerable measures in a series of their landmark judgements. Over the years the apex Court has been paying special attention for the protection of environment by giving effective directions to all the persons concerned with the matter by invoking its powers under the Article 32. An analysis of the various decisions of the Supreme Court reveals that the Apex Court has exercised its writ jurisdiction when there was leakage of hazardous gases like Chlorine from the Shri Ram Industries, throwing of waste material of alchohal plants into the adjoining nala resulting in spreading of obnoxious cells being released apart from mosquito breeding, discharge of highly toxic affluent by the tanneries, safety and insurance for the benefit of workers at the cost of employer, to entertain public grievances relating to environment in the nature of public inters litigation for banning of harmful drugs, pollution of holy Ganga by municipal sewage and industrial affulents, illegal mining of effecting ecology, pollution of waters in river polar in Tamil Nadu due to discharge of untreated affulents, assuring sustainable development detrimental to the forest growth, damage to the Taj Mahal, one of the seven wonders of the world, protecting the people from suffering of respiratory and other diseases reminding the enforecment agencies to do the job. The Environment pollution is not confined only to any particular country or particular region. It is widening and crossing over the state and political boundaries affecting land, water, air, space, perversely. Realising the degraded consequences of the environmental pollution and its future impact on living being the battle legal, political and scientific, has started in all forums of international, regional and national organizations.
The National Green Tribunal was established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice. New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other four places of sitting of the Tribunal.
Legislations on Environment
Environmental quality has deteriorated during past two decades. This is because of the gap between the intent of the policy and the actual achievement. India's environmental problems are mainly due to its high population and limited natural resources. Protection of the environment poses a fundamental challenge to the nations desire to industrialize faster. Various efforts are being made to control India's environmental problems. The government has recognized the need for planned land and water resource management and the protection of environmental resources is included in the constitution since 1976. The constitution, 42th amendment act of 1977 obligates the Government to protect and improve environment for the good of society as a whole. It also makes an environmental protection an obligation of the state and individual citizen and reads, "The state shall Endeavour to protect and improve the environmental and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country." Article 51-A (9) states "It shall be duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures." A lot of Acts like Biodiversity Conservation Act, environment Protection Act, Wildlife Preservation Act, Water Pollution Prevention Act, Air Pollution Prevention Act etc. are enacted from time to time for environment preservation.
Sustainable Development

Economic development also refer as generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area. Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. Such actions can involve multiple areas including development of human capitalcritica infrastructure,  regional competitivenessenvironmental,sustainabilitysocial,inclusionhealthsafetyliteracy, and other initiatives. Economic development differs from economic growth. Economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP. Consequently, as economist Amartya Sen points out: “economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development. We should handover Quality Air, land and environment to future generations.