Saturday, November 29, 2014

Census 2011 – Important Facts

Census 2011 is the 15th Census of India since 1872. The slogan of Census 2011 is "Our Census, Our Future".

The present Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India is Dr. C. Chandramouli.

Census 2011 covered 35 States/Union Territories, 640 districts, 5,924 Sub-districts, 7,933 Towns and 6, 40,930 Villages. 

Total Population
  • The total population of India at 0.00 hours of 1st March 2011 is 1210.6 million.
  • India’s population accounts for 17.5 per cent of world population.
  • The country’s population is almost equal to the populations of the U.S., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together.
  • Out of the total increase of 182 million added in the last decade, the contribution of rural and urban areas is equal (91.0 million each).
  • The absolute addition is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world.
  • This makes 2001-2011 as the first decade with the exception of 1911-1921 which has actually added lesser population compared to the previous decade.
  • The rural population is 833.5 million and the urban population 377.1 million.
  • The rural population constitutes 68.8% and urban population 31.2% of the total population.
  • Uttar Pradesh is the most populous State with 199 million people followed by Maharashtra at 112 million people and Lakshadweep is the least populated at 64,429 persons.
  • Uttar Pradesh has the largest rural population of 155.3 million (18.6% of the country's rural population).
  • Maharashtra has the highest urban population of 50.8 million (13.5% of country's urban population) in the country.
  • Himachal Pradesh (90.0%) has the largest proportion of rural population.
  • Delhi (97.5%) has the highest proportion of urban population.
  • Thane of Maharashtra is the most populated District in India.
  • Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, is the least populated District in India.
Growth Rate
  • The growth rate of population in India in the last decade is 17.7% (Rural - 12.3%; Urban - 31.8%).
  • Meghalaya (27.2%) has recorded the highest decadal growth rate in rural population.
  • Daman & Diu (218.8 %) recorded the highest decadal growth rate in urban population during 2001-2011.
Population Density
  • Population density in Census 2011 works out to be 382 showing an increase of 57 points from 2001.
  • Delhi (11,320) turns out to be the most densely inhabited followed by Chandigarh (9,258) among all States/UTs, both in 2001 and 2011 Census.
  • Among the major States, Bihar occupies the first position with a density of 1106, surpassing West Bengal which occupied the first position during 2001.
  • The minimum population density works out in Arunachal Pradesh (17) for both Censuses.
  • Among districts in India, highest density district is North East Delhi (37,346 per Sq KM) and lowest density district is Dibang of Arunachal Pradesh (1 per Sq KM).
Sex Ratio 
  • The Sex Ratio in the country which was 933 in 2001 has increased by 7 points to 940 in 2011.
  • In rural areas, the sex ratio has increased from 946 to 949.
  • The corresponding increase in urban areas has been by 29 points from 900 to 929.
  • Kerala has recorded the highest sex ratio (1084) in respect of total population.
  • Daman and Diu recorded the lowest sex ratio (618) among States and UTs.
  • The lowest sex ratio in rural areas has been recorded in Chandigarh (690).
  • The corresponding value in urban areas has been returned in Daman & Diu (551).
Child Population 
  • The child population in the age group of 0-6 years stands at 164.5 million.
  • Compared to Census 2001, the Child population has increased by 0.7 million in the country.
  • The growth rate of child population works out to 0.4% in the last decade. However, there has been a decline of 4.1% in rural areas and an increase of 15.6% in urban areas.
  • Census 2011 marks a considerable fall in child sex ratio (0-6 years) from 927 to 919 (-8 points) during 2001-2011. This is the lowest sex ratio since 1961.
Scheduled Caste Population
  • The total Scheduled Caste population returned in Census 2011 is 201.4 million.
  • The Scheduled Caste population constitutes 16.6 % of the total population.
  • The highest proportion of Scheduled Castes has been recorded in Punjab (31.9 %) and the lowest in Mizoram (0.1%).
  • The highest number of Scheduled Castes has been recorded in Uttar Pradesh (41.4 million) and the lowest in Mizoram (1,218).
Scheduled Tribe Population 
  • The total Scheduled Tribe population returned in Census 2011 is 104.3 million.
  • The Scheduled Tribe population constitutes 8.6 % of the total population.
  • The highest proportion of Scheduled Tribes has been recorded in Lakshadweep (94.8 %) and the lowest in Uttar Pradesh (0.6%).
  • The highest number of Scheduled Tribes has been recorded in Madhya Pradesh (15.3 million) and the lowest in Daman & Diu (15,363).
Literacy Rate
  • The number of literates in India is 763.5 million in Census 2011.
  • Literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent, showing an increase of 9.21 percentage points.
  • The literacy rate for males and females works out to 82.14 per cent and 65.46 per cent respectively.
  • The increase in literacy rate in males and females during 2001-2011 is in the order of 6.88 and 11.79 percentage points respectively.
  • The highest number of rural literates has been recorded in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Maharashtra has recorded the highest number of literates in urban areas.
  • In percentage terms male literates were 56.9% of the total literates and the female literates were 43.1 % of the total literates.
  • Kerala has the highest literacy rate (93.91) followed by Lakshadweep (92.28).
  • Bihar has the least literacy rate (63.82) and least goes to Arunachal Pradesh (66.95)

Undivided Andhra Pradesh Census 2011The following census of Andhra Pradesh is of the undivided State prior to the formation of Telangana:
  • Andhra Pradesh has population of 8.46 crore, an increase from 7.62 crore in 2001 census.
  • The population of Andhra Pradesh forms 6.99 percent of India in 2011.
  • The total population growth in this decade was 10.98 percent while in previous decade it was 13.86 percent.
  • Density of Andhra Pradesh is 308 per sq km which is lower than national average 382 per sq km. In 2001, density of Andhra Pradesh was 277 per sq km, while nation average in 2001 was 324 per sq km.
  • The Sex Ratio in Andhra Pradesh is 993 much better than the national average of 940.
  • Literacy rate in Andhra Pradesh is 67.02 percent while male literacy stands at 74.88 percent and female literacy is at 58.68 percent.

Saturday, November 22, 2014


Nuclear power plants
Currently, twenty nuclear power reactors produce 4,780.00 MW (2.9% of total installed base)
Power stationState
KalpakkamTamil Nadu
NaroraUttar Pradesh
Rawatbhata KotaRajasthan
KudankulamTamil Nadu
The projects under construction are:
Power stationState
KalpakkamTamil Nadu

 1. Tehri Dam: on Bhagirathi River, Uttarakhand with Installed capacity: 1,000 MW.
 2. Bhakra nangal Dam: on Sutlej River, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh with In stalled capacity: 1325 MW.
 3. Hirakud Dam: On Mahanadi River, Orissa with the Installed capacity: 307.5 MW.
 4. Nagarjuna sagar Dam: on Krishna River, Andhra Pradesh with Installed capacity: 816 MW.
 5. Sardar Sarovar Dam: on Narmada River, Gujarat with Installed capacity: 1,450 MW.

 Muppandal wind farm - Tamilnadu
 Vankusawade Wind Park - Maharashtra
 Vankusawade Wind Park - Karnataka
 Madhya Pradesh Wind Farm - Madhya pradesh
 Kanjikode Wind Farm - Kerala

 Vindyachal power plant - Madhya pradesh
 Talcher power plant - Orissa
 Ramagundam power plant - Andhra pradesh
 Korba power plant - Chhattisgarh
 Dadri power plant - UP
 Singrauli power plant - MP
 Farakka power plant - West Bengal

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Sobriquets - India

All Seasons State:Himachal Pradesh
Blue Mountains:Nilgiri
City of Palaces:Calcutta
City of Golden Temple:Amritsar
Garden City of India:Bangalore
Gateway of India:Mumbai
Granary of India:Punjab
Land of Five Rivers:Punjab
Pearl of the Orient:Goa
Pink City:Jaipur
Lake City:Udaipur
Switzerland of India:Kashmir
Paradise on Earth:Kashmir
Mini-Switzerland in India:Khajjar, Himachal Pradesh
Sorrow of Bengal:River Damodar
Sorrow of Bihar:River Kosi
Sorrow of Assam:Brahmaputra
Spice Garden of India:Kerala
Sugar Bowl of India:Uttar Pradesh
Tea Garden of India:Assam
Detroit of India:Pitampur
Land of Sunrise in India:Arunachal Pradesh
Manchester of South India:Coimbatore
Manchester of India:Ahmadabad
Mini Switzerland:Himachal Pradesh
City of Orange:Nagpur
Weavers City of India:Panipat
Silicon Valley of India:Bangalore
Clouds of House:Meghalaya
Gods own land of India:Kerala
Pink City:Jaipur
Hollywood of India:Mumbai
Silent Share:Ladakh
Pearl of the East:Goa

Sobriquets - World

Britain of the EastJapan
Britain of the SouthNew Zealand
Battle field of EuropeBelgium
City of CyclesBeijing
City of Dreaming SpiresOxford
City of Eternal SpringsQuito, Ecuador
City of Sky ScrapersNew York
City of Magnificent DistancesWashington D.C
City of Golden GateSan Francisco
City of Seven HillsRome
Cockpit of EuropeBelgium
Copper CountryZambia
Dark ContinentAfrica
Empire CityNew York
Emerald IslandIreland
Eternal CityRome, Italy
Forbidden CityLhasa, Tibet
Gateway of TearsStrait of Bab-el Mandeb
Garden of EnglandKent
George Cross IslandMalta
Granite CityAberdeen, Scotland
Herring PondAtlantic Ocean
Hill QueenShimla
Holy LandPalestine
Hermit KingdomKorea
Island of PearlsBahrain
Island of ClovesMadagascar
Key to the MediterraneanGibraltar
Land of EaglesAlbania
Land of Golden FleeceAustralia
Land of KangarooAustralia
Land of LiliesCanada
Land of Golden PagodaMyanmar
Land of MapleCanada
Land of Thousand LakesFinland
Land of Morning CalmKorea
Land of Rising SunJapan
Land of Setting SunBritain
Land of Midnight SunNorway
Land of LakesScotland
Land of the TulipsNetherlands
Land of White ElephantThailand
Land of Thunder BoltBhutan
Land of Thousand ElephantsLaos
Manchester of the OrientOsaka
Never, Never LandPrairies, Northern Australia
Land of Thunder DragonChina
Nation of Thousand HillsRwanda
Pearl of ArabiaBahrain
Pearl of AntillesCuba
Pillars of HerculesStrait of Gibraltar
Playground of EuropeSwitzerland
Quaker City of USAPhiladelphia
Queen of the AdriaticVenice, Italy
Roof of the WorldPamirs
Sorrow of ChinaRiver Huang Ho
Sickman of EuropeTurkey
Sugar Bowl of WorldCuba
Venice of the NorthStockholm, Sweden
White CityBelgrade
Windy CityChicago
World’s Bread BasketPrairies of North America
Island of FireIceland
Land of WindmillsPolland
Land of Perpetual GreenaryNatal
World Loneliest IslandTristanda Cunha

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Factfile of Cyclones

The word cyclone has been derived from Greek word ‘cyclos’ which means ‘coiling of a snake’. The word cyclone was coined by Heary Piddington who worked as a Rapporteur in Kolkata during British rule. The terms “hurricane” and “typhoon” are region specific names for a strong “tropical cyclone”. Tropical cyclones are called “Hurricanes” over the Atlantic Ocean and “Typhoons” over the Pacific Ocean. 

A tropical cyclone is a rotational low pressure system in tropics when the central pressure falls by 5 to 6 hPa from the surrounding and maximum sustained wind speed reaches 34 knots (about 62 kmph). It is a vast violent whirl of 150 to 800 km, spiraling around a centre and progressing along the surface of the sea at a rate of 300 to 500 km a day.

Cyclone Prone Areas in IndiaGeneral EssaysIndia has a coastline of about 7,516 km of which 5,400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Although the North Indian Ocean (the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) generates only about 7% of the world's cyclones (5 to 6 Tropical Cyclones per year) their impact is comparatively high and devastating, especially when they strike the coasts bordering the North Bay of Bengal.

Thirteen coastal states and Union Territories (UTs) in the country are affected by tropical cyclones. Four states (Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal) and one UT (Puducherry) on the east coast and one state (Gujarat) on the west coast are more vulnerable to cyclone hazards.

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is the nodal government agency that provides weather services related to cyclones in India.

Classification of Cyclones in India: The criteria followed by Meteorological Department of India (IMD) to classify the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea as adopted by World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) are as under: 
Type of Disturbances
Associated Wind Speed in the Circulation
Low pressure Area
Less than17 knots (<31 kmph)
17 to 27 knots (31 to 49 kmph)
Deep Depression
28 to 33 knots (50 to 61 kmph)
Cyclonic Storm
34 to 47 knots (62 to 88 kmph)
Severe Cyclonic Storm
48 to 63 knots (89 to 118 kmph)
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm
64 to 119 knots (119 to 221 kmph)
Super Cyclonic Storm
120 knots and above (222 kmph and above)

Recent Cyclones of Andhra Pradesh
Name of the CycloneYear of Occurrence
Hudhud12 October 2014
Lehar25 November 2013
Helen21 November 2013
NilamOctober 2012
LailaMay 2010
Khai-MukNovember 2008
YemyinJune 2007

The recent deadly cyclones that hit Indian coastCyclone Phailin (2013) – The Cyclone Phailin is a category 5 storm that struck the Odisha and Andhra coast on 11 October 2013 causing massive destruction in the region- affecting 12 million people. Phailin is a Thai word which means Sapphire. This cyclone prompted India's biggest evacuation in 23 years with more than 5,50,000 people being moved from the coastline in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh to safer shelters. Phailin brought very heavy rain of over 600 mm at many stations of Odisha. It also damaged crops worth Rs 2,400 crore and claimed over 40 lives. Loses due to Cyclone Phailin were estimated to be around rupees 420 crore.

Cyclone Nilam (2012) - Cyclonic Storm Nilam was the deadliest tropical cyclone to directly affect south India that made landfall near Mahabalipuram on October 31 as a strong cyclonic storm with peak winds of 85 kmph. Nilam caused economic losses of around Rs 100 crore because of torrential rain. 

Cyclone Thane (2011) - Thane was the strongest tropical cyclone of 2011 that became a very severe cyclonic storm on December 28, as it approached the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and made landfall at north Tamil Nadu coast between Cuddalore and Puducherry on December 30. Thane left at least 46 people dead in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. Cuddalore and Puducherry were the worst affected areas. 

Cyclone Laila (2010) - Severe cyclonic storm Laila made a landfall in Andhra Pradesh on the 20 May 2010 and caused major flooding and damage along its path. Ongole in Andhra Pradesh recorded heavy rainfall of about 460 mm in just two days. Another town Addanki received the highest rainfall of 522 mm. The state government faced a loss of over Rs 500 crore due to Cyclone Laila.

Cyclone Jal (2010) - Cyclone Jal killed at least 54 people in India alone. About 300 thousand hectares of cropland was devastated by the cyclone. The remnants of Jal continued to move northwest, brought light to moderate spells of rain in India's warmest state of Rajasthan and also in Gujarat.

Cyclone Phyan (2009) - Cyclonic Storm Phyan developed as a tropical disturbance in the Arabian Sea to the southwest of Colombo in Sri Lanka on November 4, 2009 and made landfall in south India on November 7. Massive damage to property was reported in coastal districts of Maharashtra, such as Ratnagiri, Raigad, Sindhudurg, Thane and Palghar.

Cyclone Nisha (2008) - Over 180 people were killed in Tamil Nadu alone due to heavy rain and floods caused by the cyclone. Orathanadu, in Thanjavur District in Tamil Nadu received over 990 mm of rain within 24 hours. The total amount of rainfall received from Nisha was about 1280 mm. The damage caused by the cyclone was estimated to be about 3789 crores.

The 30 Deadliest Tropical Cyclones in World History
Name / Areas of Largest Loss
Ocean Area
1.Great Bhola Cyclone, Bangladesh1970Bay of Bengal500,000
2.Hooghly River Cyclone, India and Bangladesh1737Bay of Bengal300,000
3.Haiphong Typhoon, Vietnam1881West Pacific300,000
3.Coringa, India1839Bay of Bengal300,000
5.Backerganj Cyclone, Bangladesh1584Bay of Bengal200,000
6.Great Backerganj Cyclone, Bangladesh1876Bay of Bengal200,000
7.Chittagong, Bangladesh1897Bay of Bengal175,000
8.Super Typhoon Nina, China1975West Pacific171,000
9.Cyclone 02B, Bangladesh1991Bay of Bengal140,000
9.Cyclone Nargis, Myanmar2008Bay of Bengal140,000
11.Great Bombay Cyclone, India1882Arabian Sea100,000
12.Hakata Bay Typhoon, Japan1281West Pacific65,000
13.Calcutta, India1864Bay of Bengal60,000
14.Swatlow, China1922West Pacific60,000
15.Barisal, Bangladesh1822Bay of Bengal50,000
15.Sunderbans coast, Bangladesh1699Bay of Bengal50,000
15.India1833Bay of Bengal50,000
15.India1854Bay of Bengal50,000
19.Bengal Cyclone, Calcutta, India1942Bay of Bengal40,000
19.Bangladesh1912Bay of Bengal40,000
19.Bangladesh1919Bay of Bengal40,000
22.Canton, China1862West Pacific37,000
23.Backerganj (Barisal), Bangladesh1767Bay of Bengal30,000
24.Barisal, Bangladesh1831Bay of Bengal22,000
25.Great Hurricane, Lesser Antilles Islands1780Atlantic22,000
26.Devi Taluk, SE India1977Bay of Bengal20,000
26.Great Coringa Cyclone, India1789Bay of Bengal20,000
28.Bangladesh1965 (11 May)Bay of Bengal19,279
29.Nagasaki Typhoon, Japan1828Western Pacific15,000
30.Bangladesh1965 (31 May)Bay of Bengal12,000

Largest in the World

Land Forms
Largest ContinentAsia
Largest LandmassThe Eurasian Landmass
Largest GorgeGrand Canyon, USA
Largest DeltaSundarbans in India and
Largest Peninsula
Largest IslandGreenland
Largest Country in AreaRussia
Largest ArchipelagoIndonesia
Largest DesertSahara, Africa
Largest ForestConiferous Forests of Northern
Largest Plateau
Pamir, Tibet
Largest Mountain RangeThe Himalaya
Largest Cold DesertGobi Desert, Mongolia
Largest Active VolcanoMauna Lao on Hawaii
Largest CaveMammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA
Water Systems
Largest OceanPacific
Largest SeaSouth China Sea
Largest RiverAmazon River
Largest River BasinAmazon River
Largest Salt Water LakeCaspian Sea
Largest Fresh Water LakeLake Superior in North America
Largest Artificial LakeLake Mead at Hoover Dam, USA
Largest BayHudson Bay, North Canada
Largest GulfGulf of Mexico
Largest Inland SeaMediterranean Sea
Largest CanalKeil Canal in Germany
Largest ReefGreat Barrier Reef, Australia
Largest StraitTartar Strait
Largest EstuaryThe Gulf of Ob, Russia
Man Made
Largest TempleAngkorwat, Cambodia
Largest AirportKing Khalid International Airport at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Largest ChurchSt. Peter's Basilica, Rome
Largest MosqueSha Faisal Mosque, Islamabad
Largest EmbassyRussian Embassy, Beijing
Largest War PlaneMirage, France
Largest PrisonKharkov Russia
Largest PalaceImperial Palace, Beijing
Largest HotelMGM Grand Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, USA
Largest StadiumStrahove, Czech Republic
Largest LibraryUnited States Library of Congress
Largest MuseumAmerican Museum of Natural History, New York
Largest DamThree Gorges, China
Largest Country in PopulationChina
Largest WallThe Great Wall, China
Largest CemeteryLeningrad, Russia
Largest Railway StationGrand Central Terminal, New York
Largest University BuildingUniversity Of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Largest Open UniversityIndira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi
Largest Steel PlantNippon Steel Plant, Japan
Largest StatueStatue of Liberty
Flora and Fauna
Largest AnimalBlue Whale
Largest Land AnimalThe African Bush Elephant
Largest ParkWood Buffalo National Park, Canada
Largest ZooKrugal National Park, South Africa
Largest River IslandMajuli, Assam
Largest WingspanAlbatross
Largest BirdOstrich
Largest PlanetJupiter
Largest DemocracyIndia
Largest ElectorateIndia
Largest DiamondThe Cullinan
Largest ParliamentThe National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China

Smallest, Highest, Longest, Deepest, Tallest in the World

Smallest In the World
Smallest ContinentAustralia
Smallest OceanArctic Ocean
Smallest CountryVatican
Smallest BirdHumming Bird
Smallest Flowering PlantWolffia
Smallest PlanetMercury
Smallest MuseumArizona, US
Smallest PCSpace Cube
Smallest ColonyGibraltar

Highest in the world:
Highest Mountain PeakMt. Everest
Highest LakeTiticaca, Bolivia
Highest PlateauTibet
Highest WaterfallAngel Falls, Venezuela
Highest AirportLhasa Airport, Tibet
Highest RailwayQinghai - Tibet
Highest Railway StationCondor Station, Bolivia
Highest Mountain PeakMt. Everest, Nepal
Highest ContinentAntarctica
Highest Active VolcanoGuayathiri, Chile
Highest BridgeMilau, France
Highest River BridgeRoyal Gorge, Colorado
Highest Capital CityLa Paz, Bolivia

Longest In the World:
Longest riverNile, Egypt
Longest Road
Longest Railway Platform
Pan American Highway
Kharagpur, West Bengal
Longest DamHirakud, Orissa
Longest Railway TunnelSeikan Rail Tunnel, Japan
Longest Railway LineTrans-Siberian Railway, Russia
Longest Ship CanalSuez Canal
Longest Road TunnelSt. Gothard Road Tunnel, Switzerland
Longest Fresh Water LakeLake Tanganyika
Longest WallGreat Wall of China
Longest AirportDallas, USA
Longest DayJune 21
Longest Swimming CanalEnglish Canal

Deepest in the World
Deepest OceanPacific Ocean
Deepest LakeLake Baikal, Siberia
Deepest Point in the OceanChallenger deep of Mariana Trench in Pacific Ocean
Deepest GorgeHell’s Canyon, USA

Tallest in the World
Tallest MinaretSultan Hassan Mosque, Egypt
Tallest FountainFountain Hills, Arizona
Tallest Free Standing StructureCN Tower,Toronto, Canada
Tallest Active GeyserSteam Boat Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA
Tallest BuildingBurj Khalifa in Dubai
Tallest TreeThe Redwood Tree
Tallest AnimalGiraffe
Tallest RoadKhardungla Pass, Leh Manali, India
Tallest BridgeRoyal Gorge Arkansas, America
Tallest StatueStatue of Motherland, USSR
Tallest Railway lineQuin - Hai – Tibet, China
Tallest Office BuildingPetronas Twin Tower, Kualalumpur, Malaysia

Fastest Land AnimalCheetah
Oldest National FlagDenmark
Fastest BirdSwift
Shortest RiverRoe River in Montana
Lowest Point on EarthDead Sea
Most Densely Populated ProvinceMonacco
Least Populous CityVatican
The Oldest PlantRose
The Oldest Capital CityDamascus
Most Poisonous FishPuffer fish
Coldest PlaceVostok, Antarctica
Hottest PlanetVenus
Strongest Natural FibreSilk
Lowest TemperatureAbsolute Zero -273 °C
Widest BridgeSydney Harbour Bridge
Busiest AirportChicago O'Hare International Airport
Lowest MountainsBheinna Bhaile
Hottest RegionNorth-West Sahara, Azisia, Libya
Fastest PlanetMercury
Coldest PlanetNeptune
Widest WaterfallKhone Falls
Oldest ReligionHinduism
Slowest AnimalSnail
Heaviest RainfallMawsynram, India
Driest PlaceDeath Valley, California
Hottest PlaceAzizia, Libya
Shortest DayDecember 22