Sunday, June 21, 2015

Famous cities of India and their sobriquets

Abode of God: Allahabad
Boston of India: Ahmadabad
City of Nawabs:  Lucknow
City of the Golden Temple: Amritsar
Pink City: Jaipur
Pittsburg of India: Jamshedpur
Silicon Valley of India: Bangalore
Twin Cities: Hyderabad-Secunderabad
City of Buildings: Kolkata
City of Festivals: Madurai
Queen of the Arabian Sea: Kochi

Changed Names of Cities and Nations

Previous NameChanged Name
Dutch East IndiesIndonesia
CeylonSri Lanka
East TimorLoro Sae
EgyptUnited Arab Rep
Gold CoastGhana
HollandThe Netherlands
Northern RhodesiaZambia
South West AfricaNamibia

Protection of Environment For Sustainable Development

The protection of environment is needed for sustainable development. The Industrial pollution, degradation of forests, depletion of ozone layer, the green house gases results in global warming and climate which will have an adverse impact on environment and human health. There is a need for conservation of Biodiversity, protection of wetlands and prevention of environmental pollution, promotion of ecological balance enables sustainable development. There are several provisions provided in Indian Constitution for Protection of environment. There are certain legislations enacted viz. Environment Protection Act, Wildlife Preservation Act, Biodiversity Conservation Act, water and Air pollution prevention Acts etc The Judiciary playing a vital role in protection of Environment.  Through Judicial Activism the Supreme Court can issue directions under writ Jurisdiction under Article 32 of Indian Constitution. The United Nation Organisation passed several UN conventions like Ramsar Convention on protection of wetlands, and UN convention on Biodiversity etc. World Environment Day is being celebrated across the world on 5th June every year.
Global Warming and Climate change
Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate. Even though it is an ongoing debate, it is proved by the scientists that the planet is warming. Global warming is for real The average global temperatures are higher than they have ever been during the past millennium, and the levels of CO in the atmosphere have e crossed all previous records. The climate is changing. The earth is warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening, and human-induced. With global warming on the increase and species and their habitats on the decrease, chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally are diminishing. Many are agreed that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet. Recent years show increasing temperatures in various regions, and  increasing extremities in weather patterns. Climate Change resulting from increased green house gases concentrations has the potential to harm societies and eco-systems. In particular, agriculture, forestry, water resources, human health, costal settlements and natural eco-systems will need to adapt to a changing climate or face diminishing functions. The changing climate patterns, and especially increased frequency and severity of extreme events, will increase vulnerability to the natural disasters, both slower on set ones such as drought and rapid onset disaster such as flood and cyclones.
Forest Conservation
The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was emphasized in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognizing the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Also in 1988, the Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was amended to facilitate stricter conservation measures. The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasizes the need to combine India's effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. India defines forest management as one where the economic needs of local communities are not ignored; rather forests are sustained while meeting nation's economic needs and local issues through scientific forestry.
Protection of Wetlands
Wetlands are complex ecosystems and encompass a wide range of inland, coastal and marine habitats. They share the characteristics of both wet and dry environments and show immense diversity based on their genesis, geographical location, hydrological regimes and substrate factors. They include flood plains, swamps, marshes, fishponds, tidal marshes natural and man-made wetlands. Among the most productive life support, wetlands have immense socio-economic and ecological importance for mankind. They are crucial to the survival of natural biodiversity. They provide suitable habitats for endangered and rare species of birds and animals, endemic plants, insects besides sustaining migratory birds. India has a wealth of wetland ecosystems distributed in different geographical regions. India is also a signatory to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and the Convention of Biological Diversity; Apart from government regulation, development of better monitoring methods is needed to increase the knowledge of the physical and biological characteristics of each wetland resource, and to gain, from this knowledge, a better understanding of wetland dynamics and their controlling processes. India being one of the mega diverse nations of the world should strive to conserve the ecological character of these ecosystems along with the biodiversity of the flora and fauna associated with these ecosystems. The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 158 Contracting Parties to the Convention, with 1758 wetland sites, totaling 161 million hectares, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. Ramsar Convention is the only global environment treaty dealing with a particular ecosystem. The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was developed as a means to call international attention to the rate at which wetland habitats were disappearing, due to lack of understanding of their important functions, values, goods and services. Governments which have joined the Convention are expressing their willingness to make a commitment for helping to reverse that history of wetland loss and degradation. In addition, many wetlands are international systems lying across the boundaries of two or more countries, or are part of river basins that include more than one country.
Conservation of Biodiversity
Conservation of Biodiversity is the need of the hour. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is a federal legislation enacted by the Parliament of India for preservation of biological diversity in India, and provides mechanism for equitable sharing of benefits arising out of use of traditional biological resources and knowledge. The Act was enacted to meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party. The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act 2002. The NBA is a Statutory, Autonomous Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for the Government of India on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.
Wildlife Conservation
Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans.  Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes. Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. Wildlife Conservation Act 2002 was enacted to protect wildlife in India. The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable population of tiger in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Project Elephant (PE), a centrally sponsored scheme, was launched in February 1992 to provide financial and technical support to major elephant bearing States in the country for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors.
Ozone Depletion
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena, there are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events. The details of polar ozone hole formation differ from that of mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both is catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic halogens. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photo dissociation of man-made halocarbon refrigerants (CFCsfreonshalons). These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halo-carbons increased. CFCs and other contributory substances are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). This is used to protect the ozone layer which protect humans from ultra-violet rays of Sun.
Environmental Impact Assessment
An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impacts that a proposed project may have on the environment, consisting of the environmental, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made." EIAs are unique in that they do not require adherence to a predetermined environmental outcome, but rather they require decision ­makers to account for environmental values in their decisions and to justify those decisions in light of detailed environmental studies and public comments on the potential environmental impacts.
Environment and Indian Constitution
The Indian Constitution guarantees justice, liberty and equality to all citizens of the country. In Maneka Gandhi's case the court gave a new dimension to Article 21. It held that the right to 'live' is not merely confined to physical existence but it include within its ambit the right to live with human dignity. The same view was reflected by Court in Francis Coralie V. Union Territory of Delhi said that the right to live is not restricted to mere animal existence. Article 21 also constitute right to get pollution free water and air. Article 48 of Directive Principles of State Policy directs that the State to take steps to organize agriculture and animal husbandary on modern and scientific lines. Again Article 48-A requires the State to take steps to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. In M.C. Mehta (II) V. Union of India, the Supreme Court, relying on Article 48-A gave direction to Central and State Governments and various local bodies and Boards under the various statutes to take appropriate steps for the prevention and control of pollution of water. Article 51-A says that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and impove the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living.
Role of Judiciary in Environmental Protection
One of the most innovative parts of the Constitution is that right to enforce the fundamental rights by moving Supreme Court is itself a fundamental right under article 32 of the ConstitutionWrit juridisdiction is conferred on Supreme Court under Article 32 and High Courts under Article 226 of the Constitution. Under these provisions Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue any drections or orders writ, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto and certiorari, whichever is appropriate High Court is wider in scope than that of Supreme Court. However, it may be pointed out that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all Courts within the territory of India. Moreover, the Supreme Court in exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it. The Supreme Court and also various High Courts have taken innumerable measures in a series of their landmark judgements. Over the years the apex Court has been paying special attention for the protection of environment by giving effective directions to all the persons concerned with the matter by invoking its powers under the Article 32. An analysis of the various decisions of the Supreme Court reveals that the Apex Court has exercised its writ jurisdiction when there was leakage of hazardous gases like Chlorine from the Shri Ram Industries, throwing of waste material of alchohal plants into the adjoining nala resulting in spreading of obnoxious cells being released apart from mosquito breeding, discharge of highly toxic affluent by the tanneries, safety and insurance for the benefit of workers at the cost of employer, to entertain public grievances relating to environment in the nature of public inters litigation for banning of harmful drugs, pollution of holy Ganga by municipal sewage and industrial affulents, illegal mining of effecting ecology, pollution of waters in river polar in Tamil Nadu due to discharge of untreated affulents, assuring sustainable development detrimental to the forest growth, damage to the Taj Mahal, one of the seven wonders of the world, protecting the people from suffering of respiratory and other diseases reminding the enforecment agencies to do the job. The Environment pollution is not confined only to any particular country or particular region. It is widening and crossing over the state and political boundaries affecting land, water, air, space, perversely. Realising the degraded consequences of the environmental pollution and its future impact on living being the battle legal, political and scientific, has started in all forums of international, regional and national organizations.
The National Green Tribunal was established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice. New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other four places of sitting of the Tribunal.
Legislations on Environment
Environmental quality has deteriorated during past two decades. This is because of the gap between the intent of the policy and the actual achievement. India's environmental problems are mainly due to its high population and limited natural resources. Protection of the environment poses a fundamental challenge to the nations desire to industrialize faster. Various efforts are being made to control India's environmental problems. The government has recognized the need for planned land and water resource management and the protection of environmental resources is included in the constitution since 1976. The constitution, 42th amendment act of 1977 obligates the Government to protect and improve environment for the good of society as a whole. It also makes an environmental protection an obligation of the state and individual citizen and reads, "The state shall Endeavour to protect and improve the environmental and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country." Article 51-A (9) states "It shall be duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures." A lot of Acts like Biodiversity Conservation Act, environment Protection Act, Wildlife Preservation Act, Water Pollution Prevention Act, Air Pollution Prevention Act etc. are enacted from time to time for environment preservation.
Sustainable Development

Economic development also refer as generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area. Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. Such actions can involve multiple areas including development of human capitalcritica infrastructure,  regional competitivenessenvironmental,sustainabilitysocial,inclusionhealthsafetyliteracy, and other initiatives. Economic development differs from economic growth. Economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP. Consequently, as economist Amartya Sen points out: “economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development. We should handover Quality Air, land and environment to future generations.

Sunday, May 3, 2015

Delhi Postman Mail Guard Exam General Knowledge Solved Paper (Exam Held on 21-12-2014)

1. Who among the following has not won the Bharat Ratna Award? 
(A) CNR Rao (B) M. G. Ramachandran 
(C) Sivaji Ganesan (D) K. Kamaraj (Ans : C)

2. Complete the following series: YAZ, WBX, UCV, .……
(A) STD (B) SOT (C) SEP (D) SDQ (Ans : B)

3. Who among the following has not held the post of Chief Election Commissioner of India? 
(A) Navin Chawla (B) S. Y. Qureshi 
(C) Rangarajan (D) J. M. Lyngdoh (Ans : C)

4. Who presided over the Karachi Session of the Indian National Congress 1931 ? 
(A) Sardar Patel (B) Subhash Chandra Bose 
(C) Gandhiji (D) Maulana Azad (Ans : A)

5. Arrange the following in the increasing order of their size. 
Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Telangana 
(A) Kerala, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka 
(B) Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Karnataka 
(C) Kerala, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu 
(D) Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala (Ans : D)

6. Which of the following languages was not awarded Classical Language status by the Central Govt. ? 
(A) Bengali (B) Sanskrit (C) Kannada (D) Oriya (Ans : A)

7. In a row of boys, if Ashok who is 10th from the left and Zakir who is 9th from the right interchange their positions, Ashok becomes 15th from the left. How many boys are there in the row ? 
(A) 23 (B) 31 (C) 27 (D) 29 (Ans : A)

8. Who among the following won the US Open Tennis Champion- ship 2014 ? 
(A) Kei Nishikori (B) Serena Williams 
(C) Venus Williams (D) Petra Kvitova (Ans : B)

9. Who among the following is associated with 'Wikileaks' ? 
(A) Julian Assange (B) Edward Snowden 
(C) Mark Zuckerberg (D) Oscar Pritorius (Ans : A)

10. The 'Budhacharita' was written by– 
(A) Amarasimha (B) Bhasa 
(C) Virasena (D) Ashwaghosha (Ans : D)

11. Which of the following diseases is not caused by a virus? 
(A) Ebola (B) Malaria 
(C) Rabies (D) Yellow Fever (Ans : B)

12. Simuka was the founder of which dynasty? 
(A) Pallava (B) Satavahana 
(C) Rashtrakuta (D) Huna (Ans : B)

13. The violent incident at Chauri Choura occurred during which of the following agitations? 
(A) Civil Disobedience Movement (B) Non Co-operation Movement 
(C) Quit India Movement (D) None of these  (Ans : B)

14. Arun said, "This girl is the wife of the grandson of my mother. " Who is Arun to the girl? 
(A) Uncle (B) Father-in-law 
(C) Grandfather (D) Cousin (Ans : B)

15. Which of the following rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal? 
(A) Indus (B) Narmada (C) Tapti (D) Yamuna (Ans : D)

16. The ozone layer is found in–
(A) Troposphere (B) Stratosphere 
(C) Exosphere (D) Thermosphere (Ans : B)

17. We get which vitamin through exposure to sunlight? 
(A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin D 
(C) Vitamin E (D) Vitamin K (Ans : B)

18. Who was awarded the Best Actress in the 61th National Film Awards? 
(A) Geetu Mohandas (B) Amruta Subhash 
(C) Geetanjali Thapa (D) Suhasini (Ans : C)

19. In which state is the Chilka lake? 
(A) Odisha (B) Andhra Pradesh 
(C) Arunachal Pradesh (D) Rajasthan (Ans : A)

20. What is the maximum (sanctioned) strength of Supreme Court including the Chief Justice of India? 
(A) 14 (B) 18 (C) 31 (D) no limit (Ans : C)

21. What is the chemical name for baking soda ? 
(A) Potassium Nitrate (B) Sodium chloride 
(C) Sodium Bicarbonate (D) Potassium chloride (Ans : C)

22. Which of the following is not a browser? 
(A) Android (B) Firefox 
(C) Chrome (D) Safari (Ans : A)

23. Which metal is common to the alloys brass, bronze and gun-metal? 
(A) Zinc (B) Tin (C) Aluminium (D) Copper (Ans : D)

24. Silvassa is the capital of– 
(A) Oaman and Oiu (B) Oadra and Nagar Haveli 
(C) Lakshadweep (D) Andaman and Nicobar (Ans : B)

25. In which year did nationalization of banks start in India? 
(A) 1966 (B) 1969 (C) 1975 (D) 1980 (Ans : B)

Bihar SSC Graduate Level Preliminary Exam General Knowledge Solved Paper (Exam Held on 16-2-2015)

1. The green pigment found in plants that perform photosynthesis is– 
(A) Chlorophyll (B) Chloroplast (C) Chloroform (D) None of the above (Ans : A)

2. ‘Silent Valley’ is in– 
(A) Tamil Nadu (B) Goa (C) Jammu and Kashmir (D) Kerala (Ans : D)

3. On which river is Goa located? 
(A) Narmada (B) Mandovi (C) Tapi (D) Pennar (Ans : B)

4. Xerophthalmia in human beings is caused due to deficiency of– 
(A) Vitamin-K (B) Vitamin-D (C) Vitamin-A (D) Vitamin-C (Ans : C)

5. Protein-Energy Malnutrition causes– 
(A) Marasmus (B) Rickets (C) Beri-beri (D) Pellagra (Ans : A)

6. At which of the following locations the value of ‘g’ is the largest? 
(A) On top of Mount Everest (B) On top of Qutub Minar 
(C) At a place on Equator (D) A camp site in Antarctica (Ans : D)

7. Malfunction of which organ causes diabetes? 
(A) Liver (B) Pancreas (C) Kidney (D) Heart (Ans : B)

8. EBOLA is a– 
(A) Virus (B) Bacteria (C) Protozoa (D) Fungi (Ans : A)

9. Goitre is caused due to deficiency of Iodine. It is prevalent in– 
(A) Coastal areas (B) Hilly areas (C) Desert areas (D) None of the above (Ans : B)

10. Vitamin-A is mainly stored in– 
(A) Lungs (B) Kidney (C) Breast (D) Liver (Ans : D)

11. Female Culex mosquito is vector of– 
(A) Malaria (B) Filariasis (C) Ring-worm (D) None of the above (Ans : B)

12. Isobars are lines displaying areas of equal– 
(A) humidity (B) temperature (C) rainfall (D) atmospheric pressure (Ans : D)

13. Which of the Rivers mentioned below flows into Rann of Kutchch? 
(A) Sabarmati (B) Luni (C) Betwa (D) None of the above (Ans : B)

14. Thyroid gland is situated in our– 
(A) liver (B) neck (C) arm-pits (D) None of the above (Ans : B)

15. What is the chemical name of the common salt? 
(A) Calcium Carbonate (B) Sodium Carbonate 
(C) Sodium Chloride (D) None of the above (Ans : C)

16. The colour of stars depends upon their– 
(A) Temperature (B) Pressure 
(C) Age (D) Distance from Solar System (Ans : A)

17. Dr. Norman E. Borlaug belonged to– 
(A) Spain (B) Mexico (C) America (D) Austria (Ans : C)

18. Iodine test is used to detect– 
(A) Cholesterol (B) Fat (C) Protein (D) Carbohydrate (Ans : D)

19. Which Article of Indian Constitution abolishes untouchability? 
(A) Article-14 (B) Article-15 (C) Article-17 (D) Article-18 (Ans : C)

20. The chemical name of Plaster of Paris is– 
(A) Calcium Chloride (B) Calcium Nitrate 
(C) Calcium Sulphate Hydrate (D) None of the above (Ans : C)

21. Among the breeds of cows mentioned below which one is not indigenous? 
(A) Holstein-Friesian (B) Gir (C) Red-Sindhi (D) Tharparkar (Ans : A)

22. Under Bihar Panchayati Raj Act every Gram Panchayat has a life of five years. It is calculated from– 
(A) the date of notification of election (B) the date of first meeting 
(C) the date of result of panchayat election (D) None of the above (Ans : C)

23. In the context of Rajya ‘Sabha which one of the following statements is true? 
(A) Council of Ministers is responsible to Rajya Sabha. 
(B) Confidence vote can be introduced in Rajya Sabha also. 
(C) Parliament can enact laws for the State List subject if Rajya Sabha with two third majority approves that a subject pertaining to State List has gained national importance. 
(D) Money bill can be introduced in Rajya Sabha. (Ans : C)

24. From the following statements identify the incorrect statement pertaining to national symbols– 
(A) Ratio of width of national flag of India to its length is two to three. 
(B) The wheel in the national flag has 24 spokes. 
(C) State emblem is an adaptation from the Lauria Nandangarh Lion Capital. 
(D) Playing time of full version of national anthem is 52 seconds. (Ans : C)

25. In an election to the Lok Sabha or State Legislative Assembly a candidate will lose his deposit if he fails to secure– 
(A) 1/5th of total valid votes (B) 1/7th of total valid votes
(C) 1/6th of total valid votes (D) None of the above (Ans : C)

26. First Convention of Indian National Congress was held in December 1885 at– 
(A) Calcutta (B) Bombay (C) Lahore (D) Madras (Ans : B)

27. A party claims status of opposition party in Lok Sabha. It should have at least member of Parliament in Lok Sabha– 
(A) 55 (B) 65 (C) 40 (D) 100 (Ans : A)

28. Under Bihar Panchayati Raj Act, a member of Gram Panchayat may resign his membership in writing under his hand addressed to Mukhiya. After submission in how many days the resignation will become effective? 
(A) 7 days (B) 15 days (C) 21 days (D) 28 days excluding Sundays (Ans : A)

29. Post independence first General Elections in India was held in the year– 
(A) 1947 (B) 1948 (C) 1952 (D) 1956 (Ans : C)

30. Expenses of NREGS Programme is shared by Central Government and State Government in the ratio of– 
(A) 90 : 10 (B) 50 : 50 (C) 75 : 25 (D) None of the above (Ans : A)

31. Which of the five year plans mentioned below was badly hit by drought and two wars? 
(A) First Five Year Plan (B) Third Five Year Plan 
(C) Fifth Five Year Plan (D) Sixth Five Year Plan (Ans : B)

32. Who founded Kisan Sabha in Bihar? 
(A) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (B) Sahajanand Saraswati 
(C) Jay Prakash Narayan (D) Swami Agnivesh (Ans : B)

33. Nil Darpan, published in 1860 pot-rays the plight of indigo cultivators. Who wrote Nil Darpan ? 
(A) Michael Madhusudan Dutt (B) James Long 
(C) Dinbandhu Mitra (D) Bankim Chandra (Ans : C)

34. Among the committees mentioned below, which committee is related to Panchayati Raj ? 
(A) Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (B) Shah Commission 
(C) M. C. Joshi Committee (D) Justice (Retd.) Mukul Mudgal Committee (Ans : A)

35. Crux of Community Development Programme was– 
(A) Construction of roads (B) Family Planning 
(C) Peoples participation (D) Irrigation (Ans : C)

36. Dronacharya Award is given in– 
(A) Literature (B) Peace (C) Sports Coaching (D) Bravery (Ans : C)

37. National Sports Day is celebrated on 29th August, which is related to– 
(A) Dhyan Chand (B) Milkha Singh (C) Daleep Singh (D) C. K. Nayadu (Ans : A)

38. Magsaysay Award is given after Ramon Magsaysay. He was President of which nation ? 
(A) Myanmar (B) Malaysia (C) Philippines (D) Sweden (Ans : C)

39. XXII Winter Olympic Games were organized in which country ? 
(A) Russia (B) South Korea (C) United Kingdom (D) Switzerland (Ans : A)

40. Sahara Desert is situated in– 
(A) Asia (B) Europe (C) Africa (D) Australia (Ans : C)

41. Durand Cup is associated with– 
(A) Tennis (B) Soccer (C) Hockey (D) None of the above (Ans : B)

42. Who won the Nobel Prize for Peace for the year 2014 ? 
(A) Barack Obama (B) Ban Ki Moon 
(C) Malala Yusufzai and Kailash Satyarthi (D) European Union (Ans : C)

43. ‘Bihu’ is a folk dance of– 
(A) Assam (B) Odisa (C) West Bengal (D) Tripura (Ans : A)

44. Capital of Peru is– 
(A) La Paz (B) Quito (C) Lima (D) Bogota (Ans : C)

45. Chernobyl Nuclear Plant, now decommissioned is in– 
(A) Russia (B) Ukraine (C) Belarus (D) Georgia (Ans : B)

46. What is the currency of Japan? 
(A) Dirham (B) Kroner (C) Yuan (D) Yen (Ans : D)

47. Which of the cyclones did not touch the Eastern Coast of India? 
(A) Nilofar (B) Hud Hud (C) Lehar (D) Helen (Ans : A)

48. Who wrote the book ‘Train to Pakistan’ ? 
(A) Mulk Raj Anand (B) Shobha Singh 
(C) Ruskin Bond (D) Khuswant Singh (Ans : D)

49. Who is the author of the book “Wings of Fire” ? 
(A) Abul Kalam Azad (B) Abdul Kalam 
(C) Arundhati Roy (D) Chetan Bhagat (Ans : A)

50. ‘The Discovery of India’ was written in Ahmadnagar Fort during imprisonment. Who wrote ‘The Discovery of India’ ? 
(A) Swami Vivekanand (B) Mahatma Gandhi 
(C) Subhash Chandra Bose (D) Jawahar Lal Nehru (Ans : D)

51. Which country is known as Sugar Bowl of the World? 
(A) Cuba (B) India (C) Brazil (D) U.S.A. (Ans : A)

52. Water attains maximum density at– 
(A) 0°C (B) 4°F (C) 4K (D) 4°C (Ans : D)

53. In which year United Nations Organization was formed ? 
(A) 1945 (B) 1947 (C) 1954 (D) 1919 (Ans : A)

54. Who was the Viceroy of India on the eve of Indian Independence? 
(A) Lord Wave II (B) Lord Curzon (C) Lord Mountbatten (D) C. Raj Gopalachari (Ans : C)

55. Which ICS Officer was associated with the formation of Indian National Congress in 1885 ? 
(A) Macauley (B) Lord Simon (C) Lord Irwin (D) A. D. Hume (Ans : D)

56. New capital of Myanmar is– 
(A) Yangon (B) Mandalay (C) Naypyidaw (D) Kachin (Ans : C)

57. Who wrote the novel ‘Tamas’ ? 
(A) Bhisma Sahani (B) Balraj Sahani (C) Prem Chand (D) Amrita Pritam (Ans : A)

58. Which team won the Ranji Tropy for the year 2013-14 ? 
(A) Maharashtra (B) Railway (C) Karnataka (D) Punjab (Ans : A)

59. Who was the Prime Minister of Britain at the time of Indian Independence? 
(A) Harold Wilson (B) Winston Churchill 
(C) Clement Attlee (D) Macmillan (Ans : C)

60. Who is the current Governor of Reserve Bank of India? 
(A) Bimal Jalan (B) U.K. Sinha (C) Raghu Ram Rajan (D) Nandan Nilkeni (Ans : C)

61. Who is the current Chairperson of National Commission for Women of India? 
(A) Mamata Sharma (B) Lalitha Kumaramangalam 
(C) Girija Vyas (D) Krishna Tirath (Ans : B)

62. When was Panchsheel Treaty signed between India and China? 
(A) 1949 (B) 1962 (C) 1954 (D) None of the above (Ans : C)

63. Who is the father of Green Revolution in India? 
(A) Prakash Singh Kairon (B) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam 
(C) M.S. Swaminathan (D) None of the above (Ans : C)

64. Aung San Suu Kyi leader of NLO belongs to which country ? 
(A) South Korea (B) Sri Lanka (C) Thailand (D) Myanmar (Ans : D)

65. When was Poona Pact signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Baba Saheb Ambedkar ? 
(A) 1919 (B) 1932 (C) 1937 (D) 1935 (Ans : B)

66. Gir forests are famous for lions. They are located in– 
(A) Jharkhand (B) Chhattisgarh (C) Gujarat (D) Assam (Ans : C)

67. Famous painter Raja Ravi Verma belonged to the court of– 
(A) Mysore (B) Travancore (C) Coorg (D) Cooch Behar (Ans : B)

68. Which river flowing in Bihar originates at Amarkantaka ? 
(A) Koyal (B) Sone (C) Pun Pun (D) Karo (Ans : B)

69. Who among the following studied in the University of Nalanda ? 
(A) Megasthanese (B) Hiuen Tsang (C) Ibn Batuta (D) Al-Baruni (Ans : B)

70. When was the resolution of ‘Poorna Swaraj’ passed by the Congress? 
(A) 26th February, 1930 Karachi (B) 26th January, 1930 Lahore 
(C) 26th November, 1931 Calcutta (D) 26th January, 1930 Bombay (Ans : B)

First in India Female Personalities

● Prime-Minister—Indira Gandhi 
● Woman (India and World) who crossed English Channel through Swimming—Arti Shah 
● Governor—Sarojini Naidu (U. P.) 
● I. P. S.—Kiran Bedi ● President of National Congress—Anne Besant 
● Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission—Rose-William Baithu 
● Winner of Nobel Prize—Mother Teresa (for peace) 
● Awardee of Miss World—Reeta Farhia 
● Awardee of Miss Universe—Sushmita Sen 
● Mayer—Tara Charian (Madras-1957) 
● Minister in Central Cabinet—Rajkumari Amrit Kaur 
● Chief Minister—Sucheta Kriplani 
● Parliamentrian—Radhabai Subbarayan (1938) 
● Judge of Supreme Court—Justice Meera Sahaib Fatima Bibi 
● Chief Justice of High Court—Justice Leela Seth (Himachal Pradesh) 
● Session Judge of the Counting—Anna Chandi (Kerala) 
● Mountaineer who climbed (Conquered) the Mt. Everest—Bacchendri Pal 
● Awardee of Norman Barlog Prize—Dr. Amrita Patil 
● Literature who was awarded the Sahitya Akademi award—Amrita Pritam (1956) 
● Honoured with ‘Bharat Ratna’—Indira Gandhi 
● Awardee of Lenin peace award—Aruna Asaf Ali 
● Awardee of Jananpith Purshkar—Asha Purna Devi (1976) 
● Woman who reached ‘Antarctica’—Mahel Musa (1977) 
● Woman who reached the North Pole—Pritisu Gupta (1993) 
● Woman who travelled All round the world—Ujjawala Patil (1988) by Boat 
● Chief Engineer—P. K. Tresia Naguli 
● Pilot—Flying Officer Sushma Mukhopaddhyaya 
● Air Lines Pilot—Capt. Durga Banerjee 
● Commander of Boeing 737 Plane—Capt. Saudamini Deshmukh 
● Paratrooper of Indian Air Force—Geeta Ghosh 
● I. A. S.—Auna George Malhotra 
● First television news broadcaster—Pratima Puri 
● Participated in mustic programme of U.N.O.—M. S. Subbuluxmi (1966) 
● Woman participated in Olympic games—Meri Lila Row (1952) 
● Woman who won the medal in Olympic games—Malleshwari (weight lifting—Sydney) 
● Woman who won the Gold Medal in Asian games—Kamaljeet Sidhu (1970, 400 metre) 
● Woman who won the medal in Commonwealth games—Anil Ghiya and Kawal Thakur Singh (woman Doubles Badminton, 1978) ● Medal winner in International Athletic Championship—Anju B. George (2003 Paris) 
● Grandmaster winner in Chess—Bhagiya Sri Thispey (1988) 
● One hundred wicket taker in International Cricket—Indulgi (1986) 
● Awardee of Arjun Purskar—N. Lamsden (Hockey, 1961) 
● Woman who made hat-trick in football—Youlandade-Suza (1978) 
● Awardee of Ashok Chakra—Neerja Bhanot (Posthumously) 
● Awardee of Sena Medal—Vimla Devi (1988) 
● Degree of graduation—Kadambni Ganguly (Bose) and Chandramukhi Bose (Kolkata University, 1883) 
● Awardee of B. E. degree—Ella-Majumdar (1951) 
● M.B.B.S. Degree awardee—Vidhumuti Bose and Virginia Mitter (Kolkata Medical College) 
● First Surgeon—Dr. Prema Mukherjee 
● Deputy Governor of Reserve Bank—K. J. Udesi (2003) 
● Chairman of NABARD—Ranjana Kumar 
● D. I. G. (Police)—Kanchan Chaudhry Bhattacharya 
● Lieutenant General—Punita Arora 
● Chairman of Indian Air lines—Shushma Chawla 
● Barrister—Cornonia Sorabji (Allahabad High Court-1923) 
● Advocate—Regina Guha 
● Ambassador—Vijayalaxmi Pandit (U.S.S.R.-1947) 
● Woman who crossed over Gibralter Strait by Swimming—Arati Pradhan 
● World Record in Powerlifting—Sumita Laha (1989) 
● Represented the nation in all three games (Cricket, Hockey and Basketball)—Shrin Khushro Kiyasa 
● First Commercial test Pilot of the world—Capt. Surun Darsi and Capt. Rose Lopar 
● Pilot of Indian Air Force—Harita Daoel 
● Twice scaled the Mt. Everest—Santosh Yadav 
● Ramon Magsaysay Prize awardee—Kiran Bedi 
● Heroin awarded Dada Sahaib Phalke Prize—Devika Rani Rorik 
● Youngest woman who scaled the Mt. Everest twice—Decky Dolma 
● Scientist who was awarded Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar award—Ashima Chatterjee 
● Foreign Secretary—Chokila Ayyar 
● First Chief Secretary of the Country—Nirmla Buch 
● First Space traveller—Kalpana Chawla 
● Joint Director of C.B.I.—Archana Sunder Lingam 
● Winner of Murti Devi Prize—Pratibha Rai 
● Woman Contested the Presidential election—Capt. Laxmi Sahgal 
● Air Vice-Marshal and Air-Marshal in Indian Air Force—P. Bondyopaddhyay 
● Non-military Police Advisor in U.N.O.—Kiran Bedi 
● Revenue Secretary—Vinita Rai 
● Referee in Boxing—Rajia Sabnam 
● First woman of Indian origin who stayed for the longest time in space—Sunita William