Monday, October 13, 2014

Nobel Prizes 2014

2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences
CivilsThe 2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Jean Tirole "for his analysis of market power and regulation".
The economics prize – whose formal name is the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – was created in 1968, while the physics, chemistry, physiology, literature and peace prizes were first awarded in 1901.
Jean Tirole, born in August 9, 1953 at Troyes, France is a professor of economics. He works on industrial organization, game theory, banking and finance, and economics and psychology. After receiving his PhD from MIT in 1981, he worked as a researcher at l'Ecole nationale des ponts et chaussees until 1984. From 1984-1991 he worked as a Professor of Economics at MIT. He was president of the Econometric Society in 1998 and of the European Economic Association in 2001. Tirole was affiliated to Toulouse 1 Capitole University, Toulouse, France at the time of the award of Nobel Prize.

2014 Nobel Peace PrizeCivilsThe Nobel Peace Prize 2014 was awarded jointly to Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzay "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".

Kailash Satyarthi
Born:
11 January 1954, Vidisha, India
Residence at the time of the award: India
Prize share: 1/2
Showing great personal courage, Kailash Satyarthi, maintaining Gandhi’s tradition, has headed various forms of protests and demonstrations, all peaceful, focusing on the grave exploitation of children for financial gain. He has also contributed to the development of important international conventions on children’s rights.
Malala YousafzayBorn:12 July 1997, Mingora, Pakistan
Residence at the time of the award: United Kingdom
Despite her youth, Malala Yousafzay has already fought for several years for the right of girls to education, and has shown by example that children and young people, too, can contribute to improving their own situations. This she has done under the most dangerous circumstances. Through her heroic struggle she has become a leading spokesperson for girls’ rights to education.

2014 Nobel Prize in LiteratureCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Literature 2014 was awarded to Patrick Modiano "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation".

Patrick Modiano was born on July 30, 1945, in Boulogne-Billancourt, a suburb of Paris. Modiano made his debut as a writer with La place de l’etoile, a novel that attracted much attention. His works centre on topics such as memory, oblivion, identity and guilt.

“Modiano best known work is called Missing Person. It’s the story about a detective who has lost his memory and his final case is finding out who he really is; he is tracing his own steps through history to find out who he is.”
2014 Nobel Prize in ChemistryCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was awarded jointly to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy".

Eric Betzig, U.S. citizen born 1960 in Ann Arbor, MI, USA, Ph.D. in 1988 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA and Group Leader at Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA.

Stefan W. Hell, German citizen born 1962 in Arad, Romania, Ph.D. in 1990 from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Presently Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, G√∂ttingen, and Division head at the German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

William E. Moerner, U.S. citizen born 1953 in Pleasanton, CA, USA, Ph.D. in 1982 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Professor of Applied Physics at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

2014 Nobel Prize in PhysicsCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 was awarded jointly to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources".

Isamu Akasaki, Japanese citizen, born 1929 in Chiran, Japan, Ph.D. in 1964 from Nagoya University, Japan. Professor at Meijo University, Nagoya, and Distinguished Professor at Nagoya University, Japan.

Hiroshi Amano, Japanese citizen, born 1960 in Hamamatsu, Japan. Ph.D. in 1989 from Nagoya University, Japan, currently Professor at Nagoya University, Japan.

Shuji Nakamura, American citizen, born 1954 in Ikata, Japan, Ph.D. in 1994 from University of Tokushima, Japan, currently Professor at University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineCivilsThe Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was divided, one half awarded to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".

John O’Keefe, holds both American and British citizenships, was born in 1939 in New York City, USA, doctoral degree in physiological psychology from McGill University, Canada in 1967, currently Director of the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre in Neural Circuits and Behaviour at University College London.

May-Britt Moser, Norwegian citizen, born in Fosnavag, Norway in 1963, Ph.D. in neurophysiology in 1995, currently Director of the Centre for Neural Computation in Trondheim.

Edvard I. Moser, Norwegian citizen, was born 1962 in Alesund, Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the University of Oslo in 1995, currently Director of the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience in Trondheim.

About the Nobel Prize:
On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace - the Nobel Prizes. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies the Nobel Laureates receive three things: a Nobel Diploma, a Nobel Medal and a document confirming the Nobel Prize amount.
Between 1901 and 2013, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 561 times which include 45 times to women.

Nobel Laureates from India:
Ronald Ross, India, Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology 1902
Har Gobind Khorana, India, Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology 1968
Rudyard Kipling, British India (now India), Nobel Prize in Literature 1907
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, India, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, India, Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Rabindranath Tagore, India, Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Amartya Sen, India, Prize in Economic Sciences 1998
Kailash Satyarthi, Nobel Prize in Peace 2014

The Youngest Nobel Laureates Category wise
Category
Name
Year of Award
Age of Nobel Laureate
Physics
William Lawrence Bragg
1915
25
Chemistry
Frederic Joliot
1935
35
Physiology or Medicine
Frederick Banting
1923
32
Literature
Rudyard Kipling
1907
42
Peace
Malala Yousafzay
2014
17
Economic Sciences
Kenneth J. Arrow
1972
51

Geography Made Easy

The Indian island closest to the equator is
The Great Nicobar
India is separated from Sri Lanka by
The Gulf of Mannar; The Palk Strait
The smallest state in area is
Goa
The border country sharing the longest boundary with India is
China
The longitude recognised as the basis for standard meridian in our country
82½° East
Difference between Greenwich Mean Time and Indian Standard Time is
5½ hours
The boundary line between India and China is called as
Mac Mohan line
The biggest state in area is
Rajasthan
The state that has longest coast
Gujarat
Andhra Pradesh has the coastal line of
972 kms
The number of coastal states in India is
9
Greater Himalayas are also known as
Himadri Ranges
K2 mountain peak is in
Karakoram Range
The highest mountain peak of the Himalayas in India is
K2
The highest peak in peninsular India is
Anaimudi
The highest peak in the World is
Mount Everest
Great Indian Desert is
Thar
The Ganga river in Bangladesh is called as
Padma
India receives bulk of its rainfall from
South West Monsoon
The monsoon burst first takes place in coastal areas in
Kerala
The highest rainfall recorded place, Mawsynram is in
Meghalaya
The lowest average rainfall recorded in
Jaisalmer
Monsoon means
Blowing of winds and reverse seasonally
Drought is
A condition when the rainfall is less than 75% of the normal
The state is having the largest area under forest is
Madhya Pradesh
The soil which is most clayey and moisture retentive is
Black
Laterite soils are characterized by leaching away of
Silica
Highest account of the total soil cover in the country is
Red soils
The highest intensity of irrigation is found in
Punjab
Hydro-Electricity is known as
White Coal
The winter crop season is known as
Rabi
During south west monsoon the crop season is known as
Kharif
Jute cultivation is predominant in
West Bengal
Black soils are favorable for the cultivation of
cotton
Natural rubber cultivation is predominant in
Kerala
The maximum energy producing mineral in India is
Coal
To manufacture the pencils we use
Graphite
Silk industry is predominating in
Karnataka
Rourkela steel plant was set up with the assistance of
Germany
Limestone is the chief raw material for
Cement
The biggest oil refinery in India is located at
Mathura
The largest industry in our country
Textile industry
The important navigable canal in southern India is
Buckingham Canal
River based port in India is
Kolkata
The single largest item of import
Petroleum

Economy Made Easy

NABARD was established under recommendations of
Shivaraman Committee
The chairman of Fourteenth Finance Commission
Y.V. Reddy
Banks of India were nationalised for the first time in the year
1969
The main aim of devaluation is to
Encourage exports
What is the tertiary sector of economic development
Service Sector?
Which state of India has highest Per capita income
Goa
RBI was nationalised in the year
1935
National Agriculture Insurance Scheme was introduced in
1999
Short term finance is usually for a period of
12 months
Who is the regulator of Insurance sector in India
IRDA
Who is the Census Commissioner for Census 2011?
C. Chandramouli
The main rubber producing state in the country is
Kerala
The largest producer of Coffee in the country is
Karnataka
At present, the number of nationalised banks in the country
19
Project SANKALP is associated with the elimination of
AIDS
The central banking functions in India are performed by the
Reserve Bank of India
Development expenditure of the Central government does not include
Defence expenditure
Gilt-edged market means
Market of Government Securities
Loss of equipment over time due to wear and tear is called as
Depreciation
The association of the rupee with Pound Sterling as the intervention currency was broken in
1992
On July 12, 1982, the ARDC was merged into
NABARD
If the Cash Reserve Ratio is lowered by the RBI, its impact on credit creation will be to
Increase it
In the state of India, the State Financial Corporation have given assistance mainly to develop
Small and medium scale industries
States earn maximum revenue through
Commercial Taxes
The first Indian private company to sign an accord with Government of Myanmar for oil exploration in two offshore blocks in that country is
Essar Oil
The condition of indirect taxes in the country's revenue is approximately
86%
The Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) came into existence in
1987
Of the gross tax revenue of the Union Government the indirect taxes account for nearly
65 percent
The banks are required to maintain a certain ratio between their cash in the hand and total assets. This is called as
Statutory Liquid Ratio (SLR)
How many banks were nationalized in 1969?
14
In India, the first bank of limited liability manages by Indians and founded in 1881 was
Oudh Commercial Bank
The apex body for formulating plans and coordinating research work in agriculture and allied fields is
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Short-term finance is usually for a period ranging up to
One year
Paper currency first started in India in
1861
Foreign Direct Investment ceilings in the telecom sector have been raised from 74 percent to
100%
The largest sponge iron producer in the world is
India
National Rural Development Institute is situated at
Hyderabad
The bank which has the highest number of branches in the world is
SBI
The Mumbai Stock Exchange was set up in
1875
Rangarajan Committee is related to
Public Sector disinvestment
Raja Chellaiah Committee is related to
Tax Reforms
Malhotra Committee is related to
Insurance Sector Reforms
Narasimham Committee is related to
Financial Sector Reforms
The principle means of transport of goods in India is
Railways
India's place in the World Production of Sugar and Sugarcane is
First
State with Highest Production of Wheat (2011-12) is
Uttar Pradesh
State with Highest Production of Rice (2011-12) is
West Bengal
State with Highest Production of Pulses (2011-12) is
Madhya Pradesh
State with Highest Production of Total Food Grains (2011-12) is
Uttar Pradesh
State with Highest Production of total Oil Seeds (2011-12) is
State with Highest Production of total Oil Seeds (2011-12) is
The policy of Family Planning was adopted by the government in
1952
Bank Rate means
The official rate of interest charged by the central bank of the country
The term MARKET in economics means
Presence of competition
Commercial banking system in India is
Branch banking
Demand of commodity mainly depends on
Power to purchase
CMD of Bharatiya Mahila Bank is
Usha Ananthasubramanian
Mr. Cyrus Pallonji Mistry took over as the chairman of which industrial group recently?
Tata Group

Science and Technology Made Easy

Green pigment is called
Chlorophyll
The carbohydrate produced in the photosynthesis
Glucose
Sweetest sugar is
Fructose
Respiration in Amoeba occurs by
Diffusion
Respiratory pigment is
Haemoglobin
The colour of the blood in Crabs and Snails is
Blue
In cockroach the blood is
White color
The normal blood pressure of man is
120 / 80 mmHg
Doctors measure blood pressure with the instrument called
Sphygmomanometer
The inter cellular fluid in blood is
Plasma
Nucleus is present in RBC of animals like
Camel
Hormone that controls Phototropism and Geotropism in plants is
Auxins
Early ripening of fruits is promoted by
Ethylene
The master gland of the body
Pituitary gland
Deficiency of iodine in food results in the enlargement of mixed gland
Pancreas
Deficiency of Insulin causes
Diabetes mellitus
The largest part of the brain is
Cerebrum
The 3 tests for detecting HIV are
ELISA, Western blot test, PCR tests
Deficiency of Iron causes
Anaemia
Deficiency of Iodine causes
Hypothyroidism
Excessive intake of fluorine results in
Fluorosis
The name vitamin was given by
Funk
The rainfall at a particular place is measured by
Rain gauge
Forests that grow near the sea shores are called
Mangroves
The gas responsible for global warming is
Carbon dioxide
Examples for non-renewable resources are
Coal, Petroleum
Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen Oxide, Chlorofluro carbons, and hydrocarbons are also called as
Green house gases
Ozone layer is damaged by
Chlorofluro Carbons
The big waves created in the sea because of the eruption of volcanoes are called
Tsunami
Environment friendly fuel is
CNG
Which lamps are used to minimize electricity consumption
Compact fluorescent
In human body fats are stored in
Adipose tissue
We feel thirsty when
Osmotic pressure of blood increases
Which organism is used in production of alcohol?
Yeast
Gasohol is a combination of gasoline and
Ethyl alcohol
Biochemical and histological examination of tissues is called
Biopsy
Oil spreads over the surface of water because
Oil has less surface tension than water
When an iron nail gets rusted, the weight of the iron nail is
Increased
The element common to all acids is
Hydrogen
Non-stick cooking utensils are coated with
Teflon
Monazite is an ore of
Thorium
The gas usually filled in the electric bulb is
Mixture of Nitrogen and Argon
Washing soda is the common name for
Sodium carbonate
The hardest substance available on the earth is
Diamond
The working principle of a Washing Machine is
Centrifugation
The audible sounds having a frequency of
20 to 20,000 hertz
The major component in the LPG is
Propane
Carbon dioxide is called greenhouse gas because
It absorbs infrared radiation
Balloons are filled with
Helium
Bell metal is an alloy of
Tin and Copper
Heavy water is
Deuterium oxide
The gases used in different types of welding would include
Oxygen and Acetylene
Cooking oil can be converted into vegetable ghee by the process of
Hydrogenation
Milk is an example of
Emulsion
Coloured glasses for goggles contain
Ferrous Oxide
The bacterium responsible for causing plague is
Yersinia pestis
Who is known as the father of Indian Ecology?
R. Mishra
The chemical name of Aspirin is
Acetylsalicylic acid
Which vitamin has cobalt
Vitamin B12
Dry Ice is
Solid Carbon dioxide
The protein used in paper coating is
Casein
The largest group of plant kingdom is
Thallophyta
Bacteria was discovered by
Antonie Van Lecuwenhoek
The Universal Blood Recipient is
AB
Which acid is found in apples
Malic acid
The basic structural and functional unit of life is
Cell
The universal blood group donor for all group is
Blood Groop O
Which human gland does secret growth hormone?
Pituitary gland
Astronomical Distance is measured in
Light year
One byte equal to
8 bit
Steel is mainly alloy of
Iron and Carbon
What does air bag, used for safety of car driver, contain?
Sodium azide
Complete loss of memory is called
Amnesia
The stones formed in human kidney mainly consist of
Calcium oxalate
The oxide of which element is used as coolant?
Nitrogen
Sleeping Sickness happens due to
Trypanosoma
The gas used in the manufacture of Vanaspati from Vegetable Oil is
Hydrogen
A device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is
Electric Motor
In which industry is mica used as a raw material?
Electrical Industry
The oxides of which gases cause acid rain?
Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphar
The substance used for artificial rains is
Silver Iodide
Red light is used as danger signal because it
is scattered least
Chromosomes consist of
DNA and Proteins
Ozone layer in the outer atmosphere helps in
Absorbing UV radiations
Which of the following is known as graveyard of RBCs?
Spleen
The name of the white revolution is associated with
Kurien Verghese
Name the first Lunar Rover of China, which was carried by an unmanned 
remotely piloted spacecraft Chang'e-3 and was deployed
successfully on moon on 14 December 2013?
Jade Rabbit (called Yutu in Chinese)
Which country scientists recently developed Li-Fi Tech, a new cheaper way 
of getting connected to internet by using signals sent through light bulbs ?
China
"Green House Effect" means -Trapping of Solar energy due to atmospheric carbon dioxide
2, 4-d is a
herbicide
The nuclear reaction involved in a nuclear reactor is
Fusion
The scientist associated with the success of Green Revolution is
Norman Borlaug
Centre for DNA fingerprinting is located at
Hyderabad
Solar energy is due to
fusion reactions
A non-conventional source of power is
Solar Power
India's permanent Research Station 'Dakshin Gongotri' is located at
Antarctica
Penicillin, an antibiotic, is obtained from
Fungus
Where was India's first computer installed?
Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta
Where the early Tsunami warning system was installed to predict 
a tsunami immediately after an
earthquake?
Rangachang in Andaman and Nicobar Islands
____ are used to supply Nitrogen to paddy.
Blue green algae
The fish released into ponds and wells to control the mosquitoes is
Gambusia
Stranger Gas is called as
Xenon
In the human body, the longest cell is
Liver Cell
_____ is used to make electric heater coil.
Nichrome
The formation of fruit without fertilisation is known as
Parthenicarpy
Root modules are commonly found in ____ plants.
Leguminous
Alzheimers disease is a disorder of the
Brain
Chromosomes of the ___ will determine the sex of a child.
Father
Hypermetropia or long sight can be corrected by using
Concave lenses
A plant product obtained from dried latex is
Opium
Cryogenic engines are used in
Rockets
Skin Cancer is caused due to presence of excess ____ in water.
Arsenic
The largest satellite in solar system is
Ganymede
German Silver is an alloy of
Copper, Zinc & Nickel
The tracking of people by trained dogs is based on the recognition of _____ from feet.
Carboxylic sweat
Boiling point of water depends on
atmospheric Pressure
An astronaut in outer space will observe sky in
Black colour
The polymer used in making plastic crockery is
Melamine
Food is cooked in a pressure cooker quickly because boiling point of water
Increases
Which vegetable's genome was sequenced completely in 2012?
Tomato